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  • Tudors: H7
    • Englands relations with foreign powers
      • aims: maintain good relations so could consolidate at home; international recognition; national security; trading interests
      • Brittany and France
        • treaty of Redon (1489)- Henry agreed to support claim of duke of Francis daughter claim
        • treaty of Etpales (1492)- after H sent army to France- peace seemed as France more interested in Italy. Charles agreed not to shelter pretenders and pay a pension
      • Burgundy and HRE
        • 1493- trade embargo after Margaret support of Warbeck
          • 1496- intercursus Magnus- ended trade embargo and H recognised as king
        • treaty of Windsor (1506)- recognised Phillip claim to Castile, Phillip handed over Suffolk and Edward; proposed marriage between H and Margaret; intercursus malus
          • flavoured eng. sailors, but never implemented, a 3rd treaty reverted to terms of intercursus magnus
      • Spain
        • 1489 medina del campo- no harbouring pretenders, marriage with arthur and catherine
      • Scotland
        • relations tense up to 1495
        • 1495-6 james supported warlock, provided small army to invade- war threatened
        • truce of  Ayton (1497)- peace treaty
        • 1503- James vi married H daughter Margaret to seal treaty
    • english society
      • structure
        • nobility: dominated land ownership, distrusted by H so reluctant to make new; controlled by B&R and laws on retaining
        • gentry: land owners and may held office
        • churchmen: had spiritual role and landowners with political influence. H made sure they had administrative ability
        • commoners: beneath mobility and gentry. hierarchy within
      • divisions
        • arose from demographic (N= dense pop), agricultural; church influence & social attitude differences
        • government structure: separate councils for north, wales etc, some considerably independent e.g. durham also noble had a lot of influence over boundaries
        • in an age of limited travel, regional loyalties were strong. however, eng. identity seen a relatively strong at this time
      • discontent and rebellions
        • Yorkshire 1489- due to tax to finance army in Brittany. Earl of Northumberland murdered
        • cornish 1497- caused by tax to finance campaign against Scot. a mob protested against king and ministers- more serious
          • larger numbers, warlock attempted to exploit, march nearer to london- Q effectiveness of H's systems
            • LT effect- H ease anglo-scottish tensions, more cautious about entering later conflict


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