1945-51 Labour governments

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700000 destroyed, 4m damaged during the war

Raw materials scarce and expensive

139690 built in 1947, increased to 284230 in 1948

New Towns Act (1946) - 14 new towns

Births and marriages increased

Lack of housing pre-war, problem just increased

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Subsidies to keep prices down

Black market as rationing continued

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NHS (1946) - infant mortality halved, life expectancy increased, death from infectious diseases decreased by 80%

Increasing cost of NHS: £179m --> £240m --> £352m

Big opposition from BMA and Royal College of Surgeons

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Butler Education Act (1944)

Milk, meals and medical services provided at all schools

11+ exam gave poorer children an opportunity of upward social mobility

Secondary moderns seen as 'inferior' to grammar schools

11+ biased towards areas with more grammar school places

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£4b loan from USA, followed by installments of Marshall Aid

Ridiculous amount of debt

End of Lend-Lease agreement with USA

To secure the loan, Britain had to release currency controls on the pound; loan also had interest

Increased debt by investing into nuclear weapons; becoming involved in the Korean War

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Soldiers could serve out the rest of their service as miners

Not enough destruction to warrant complete reconstruction of industry

Aged Victorian infrastructure

Shortage of labour


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Marketing boards established - guaranteed prices

Did not guarantee yield

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Post war consensus - working towards the maintenance of a mixed economy, pursuing the goal of full employment, maintaining a comprehensive welfare state and adjusting foreign and imperial policy to Britain's place in the post war world

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