Slides in this set
Were elite at the start of the period but by 1921,
pol/reg/land/money power all gone.
· ONLY MADE UP ¼ OF POPULATION, BUT 57% OF
· Was the dominant force of political and economic life
· Over-reliant on British government's support:
Underestimated extent to which Brit govt were prepared to
negotiate with nationalists:
· New dept, kilmainham, IPP supporting Gladstone, Parl Act 1912.
· IPP able to hold BALANCE OF POWER in Brit parl so govt more
willing to give into nationalists as pressure exerted by them --- Prots
not active in opposition. (35, 86 and 1912 = b of p)
not pro-active so easily eclipsed by the more threatening
Bad organisation so needed Brits to organise.
Lib govts prefer to undermine PA as non-conformists so dislike
· Gladstone's land issue and disestablishment...
· Cons HAVE to deal with that
· Anglicans own the land, NOT non-
conformists/Presbytarians (Tone was non-conformist).
· Wolfe Tone's uprising proved to England that PA couldn't
keep Ireland under control ---- hence A of U.…read more
Penal Laws in C18 produced the `Ascendancy':
Protestant/Anglican Landlords and priests/clergy.
· Collected tithes from the entire Irish population.
· The Viceroy's castle was Dublin Castle --- the centre of
· A limited Irish parliament until legislative independence
in 1782 Grattan's parliament. (though wasn't very
powerful) --- had to be bribed to dissolve it anyway.
· Held all the best land in Ireland, that was notably Catholic
By 1798, 95% of land was owned by 1.3% of the population.
· Don't like the Union at the beginning:
Lose some political power as have to go to Westminster still
Eventually support because of apparent economic benefits to
their stratum --- think brit govt will protect them too.
· Catholic Nationalism starts:
1820's feel threatened and so become more supportive of
Willing to be more open about said support.
O'Connell HATES the Protestant Ascendancy.
After CE, Irish MPs with Protestant Ascendancy at
Westminster --- UPPED SUPPORT FOR UNION AS FELT
MORE THREATENED.…read more
ITS DECLINE 1870S
· GRADUALLY DECLINES BUT SPEEDS UP AT A FEW POINTS.
· Why failed?
Mostly because lacked support of Britain: allowed nats to have the upper
· 1869 Church Act: Church of Ireland disestablished and disendowed.
· Electoral Reform ---- secret ballots:
Lost control over their tenant's vote.
· Bankruptcies after the Famine.
· 1870s Land Act favoured tenants --- changing balance of land
· Balance of `Constructive Unionism' designed to maintain and
strengthen the Union:
Brits don't care about the Ascendancy over the chaotic rev nats etc.
Conservatives hoped creating a new class of Ascendancy would encourage
tradition values that favoured the Union and saw Home Rule as unacceptable.
Many swayed by Land Purchase opportunities: 390,000 by 1921.
TOO LITTLE TOO LATE TO RE-SHAPE ATTITUDES OF CATHOLIC
· 1879: Land League and New Departure attacked the Protestant
· Loss of political control:
Act of Union 1801
Waterford by-election (CA and 40 shilling freeholders)
Municipal Corporations Act O'Connell = Lord Dublin
1898 Local Govt Act = more rights to shopkeepers etc --- class as well as reg
reformed. REDUCED INFLUENCE OF PA AT LOCAL LEVEL.…read more
BRITISH PARLIAMENTARY REFORM
· REDUCE POWER OF THE
· Reform Act 1867 ---- men in cities get
1884 --- rural men included in franchise.
CREATE MASS ELECTORATE.
· Secret Ballot 1882 --- VOTE IN SECRET.
· Butt, Tone, Davis, Bonar Law (con party
leader) --- from Ulster.
· ULSTERMEN is not just Unionists.…read more
· They are landlords
Small population but own majority of the land
By 1921, have almost no land
· Land Reforms = biggest problem for them
Many were bankrupt by the end of the period,
as well as poor
Is why they were prepared to accept Wyndham'
s Land Act in 1903 --- offered them a scapegoat
via compensation for selling land.…read more