Why did Stalin rise to power

My A2 history notes

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Why did Stalin rise to power? (pg 55-70)
Key dates
1921
-March Tenth Party Congress, Kronstadt Rising, NEP
1922
-April Stalin becomes General Secretary
-May Lenin's first stroke
-December Lenin offers Trotsky a joint(lMaO) bloc for democracy, Lenin's
2nd stroke, triumvirate formed against Trotsky
1923
-January Lenin's postscript recommends Stalin's removal
-February Campaign against Trotsky begins
-March 3rd stroke
-October Statement of the 46
1924
-January Lenin dies, 13th Party Conference condemns Trotsky and the 46
-May Central Committee keeps Lenin's Testament a secret and don't
dismiss Stalin, 13th Congress confirm condemnation of Stalin
-June Comintern votes against Trotsky
-November Lessons of October
1925
-January Trotsky dismissed as commissar for war, Zinoviev and Kamenev
can't persuade Stalin to replace Trotsky
-April Debate over socialism in one country vs permanent rev
-May Trotsky appointed to Supreme council of National Economy, start of
Leningrad opposition
-October Zinoviev and Kamenev joined by Sokolnikov and Krupskaya
-December 14th Party Congress
1926
-April Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev hold talks over joint opposition
-July United Opposition formally announced, Zinoviev dismissed from
Politburo

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October Stalin persuades Central Committee to expel Trotsky and
Zinoviev
-November Trotsky and Zinoviev expelled from Communist Party and
Kamenev from Central Committee
-December 15th Party Congress, Zinoviev and Kamenev end United
Opposition
1928
-January Trotsky deported to Turkestan
-July Stalin and Bukharin clash over collectivisation
-August Bukharin tries to ally with Trotsky
1929
-January Trotsky deported to Constantinople
-April Bukharin removed as editor of Pravda
-November Bukharin removed from Politburo
Why was there a power struggle?
Political and economic problems 1921-24
Adopted NEP in…read more

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See notes in folder (cba typing out same thing again in less detail)
Lenin's testament
Awareness of growing tensions concerned him
Proposed to create joint bloc with Trotsky against bureaucracy
Prevented by stroke
Outlined weaknesses and strengths of contenders
Added a postscript about removing Stalin
Urged Trotsky to launch campaign to restore party/soviet democracy
What were the key stages of the power struggle?
Early campaign against Trotsky
Triumvir alliance was finalised by 1923
Decided to open up party records to Central Committee members
So people…read more

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Stalin supervised this
Replaced Trotsky supporters with pro triumvirs
By end of 1923 Stalin controlled party machine at local level
ensured most of his nominees elected as delegates to future
congresses
Statement of the 46
July/August 1923 unofficial strikes in Moscow and Petrograd
Triumvirs blamed Workers' Opposition and called for expulsion of
members who broke 1921 ban on factions
In October, 46 leading members issued a statement criticising
leadership over economic policy and lack of democracy
Trotsky wasn't involved but loads of his supporters were…read more

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Trotsky had been on his way to the Dead Sea to recover from illness
when Lenin died, he couldn't return in time for the funeral meaning he
missed it
More LO were demoted/dismissed
Lenin's widow revealed Testament
Clearly recommended that Stalin should be removed but Zand
K argued that he had changed and argued unity
Trotsky said nothing
Congress voted to accept condemnation of Trotsky at previous
conference, he accepted this
Triumvirs used Zinoviev's position as president of Comintern
manipulated Comintern into criticising Trotsky
Hopes…read more

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Jan 1925 triumvirs removed T as commissar of war anymore
controversy and he'd be removed from Politburo and Central
Committee
T given new post on Supreme Council of National economy
Began pointing out threat of US capitalism and argued for more
socialist planning to strengthen NEP and for comintern to be
more revolutionary
Divisions within the triumvirate
NEP - some feared T's proposals as they had enjoyed prosperity
Theory of perm rev threatened internal and external peace
Bukharin vs Preobrazhensky had first arguments
Unrest of…read more

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Fierce debate in Dec 1925
T STILL SILENT JC even when Z referred to Testament
and warnings of Stalin's abuse of power
Stalin made sure majority supported him
Z defeated by 559 votes to 65
Congress elected Committee with Stalin/Bukharin supporters
Politburo centre-right majority
Z continued campaign in Leningrad
1926 - Stalin accuses Z of Trotskyism and makes him hand
leadership of Leningrad party to supporter
United opposition
So far T still not joined with Z and K
Finally, in April he offered support
They…read more

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Central committee removed T from Politburo and Z as president
of Comintern
Z tried to back peddle
Conference confirmed expulsion of all 3
Krupskaya and Workers Opposition made peace
Defeat of the United Opposition
Newspapers continued attack on UO
Lower members lost jobs
April 1927 - T forced debate about events in China
Stalin accused 84 who drafted this appeal of factionalism
Oppositionists kept being demoted
June - Stalin asked Central Committee and Control Commission to
expel T and Z from Central Committee
Didn't want…read more

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Riots amongst peasants
Politburo told police to be harsh with those who don't hand over grain
April Committee use UO ideas against rich peasants (kulaks)
Introduced emergency measures ie grain requisitioning
Those too lenient towards kulaks were removed
T supporters thought Stalin had changed (hA HA)
Stalin tried to win them over without needing T
By May 1928 it was clear Stalin was planning a rev
T supporters split
Z and K let back into party
Food crisis worsened
By August Stalin had renewed his…read more

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