Growth of States in Europe VI

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  • Growth of States in Europe VI
    • Thirty Years' War
      • 8 Million fatalities
      • Initially a religous war
      • Wedgewood
        • 'the outstanding example in European History of meaningless conflict'
      • War was stated by Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II who tried to impose uniformity amongst his Catholic subjects
      • No real "winner" but there was no longer a chance of a Holy Roman take over
    • Europe and the Thirty Years' War
      • Great Powers were fighting on German soil, violence negatively affected certain areas
      • France, Spain, Swede and Austria
      • French forces attack towards East
    • Context of Peace of Westphalia
      • 194 states
      • It took belligerents 6 months to work out logistics and administration of procedure
      • took 3 weeks to organise signing ceremony
      • It took longer since fighting carried on whilst peace was being negotiated
    • Significance of Treaty of Westphalia
      • International politics and resolution of future conflicts
      • Religion
        • 'Cuius regio, eius religio'
      • Pragmatic solution to long-term warfare
      • Change of territory and shifts in balance of power
    • Why were so many different states involved in Peace of Westphalia?
      • Empires? Different individual states changing hands
      • All individual states (lots of German states)
    • Why is the Peace of Westphalia so important in European history?
      • It settles borders in a way quite similar to now allowing Germany to take shape
      • Sets up a period of peace
      • Keeping Holy Roman Empire running meant there was little chance of war
        • it was a failing empire
      • If you abolished the empire, what do you put in its place: North German Federation and South German Federation
      • Why did it not bring lasting peace to Europe?
        • Issue of Germany hadn't presented itself
        • Papal Diplomacy being slow to change
        • Italy and Spain
        • Didn't solve French and Spanish disagreements
        • Empires still existed so there would be  competition
          • e.g. British Empire and Ottoman Empire

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