Religious Change

What is the early modern period sometimes called?
the 'age of reformation'
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How does Patrick Collinson describe the religious changes of the 16th century that meant that most people were loyal Protestant subjects?
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How did the heterogeneity of protestantism develop?
By 1700 there were a variety of 'protestantisms' available
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Divine right. Political power concentrated in the hands of monarch
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What event lead to the questioning of divine right?
English Civil War
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Name two periods during which the ideas of elites and the political system were contested?
Reformation (1530s and 1540s) and during the English Revolution period (1649 to 1660)
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What was a homily?
Designed to be read from pulpits
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Why were homilies set in print?
So could be read and scrutinized by individual readers
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When were most homilies read?
Over several consecutive Sundays
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Homily on Obedience 1547
"In earth he hath assigned and appointed Kings, Princes, with other governors under them, in all good and necessary order"
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What was the Humble Petition of divers well-affected women of the Cities of London and Westminster? (1649)
Published by women supporters of the Leveller movement, calling for freedom for their leaders and criticizing the increasingly arbitrary nature of the English Republic
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What did the Great Chain of Being evolve from?
Renaissance discourse seeing society as a pyramid
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In the same way that monarchs such as James I believe in a divine right to rule, what was believed about the division of wealth and power?
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What was the name of the yeoman farmer who wrote The History of Myddle?
Richard Gough
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The History of Myddle
Seating plan of parish church of Myddle in 1700 described; higher their status was
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Henry VII
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Henry VIII
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Start of Lutheran reformation
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Blackfriars Parliament
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Act of Supremacy
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Dissolution of monastic houses
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Pilgrimage of Grace (religious, taxation, social conflict)
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Edward VI
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Dissolution of chantries
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the commotion time (religion, taxation, social conflict), fall of Protector Somerset
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Mary I
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Mary marries Philip of Spain
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Wyatt rebellion (religious)
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Elizabeth I
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Elizabethan settlement (compromise); Act of Supremacy
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Rebellion of the Northern Earls (dynastic and religious)
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Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth
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James I
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Hampton Court Conference
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King James Bible
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Charles I
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Growing conflict between Crown and Parliament (religion, constitution)
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Personal rule of Charles I
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Edinburgh rebellion
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Bishops' Wars with Scotland
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First civil war
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Leveller movement
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Second civil war
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Execution of Charles I; English Republic
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DIgger movement
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Charles II
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Restoration of Charles II
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Exclusion crisis
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Personal rule
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James II ascends to throne
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James II
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Monmouth's Rebellion (religious, dynastic)
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Glorious Revolution, accession of William and Mary
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William and Mary
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William III
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What becomes synonymous with a sense of English national identity?
Moderate Protestantism
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Henry VIII
Seen as epitome of Renaissance kingship
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Who was the key opposition to Protestantism, netting him the title Defender of the Faith?
Henry VIII (wrote a critique of Lutheranism) 1521
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When did Henry VIII move towards Lutheran interests?
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When did Henry VIII displace the top management of the Catholic church and place himself as Supreme Head but left mechanics of church and much of doctrine unchanged?
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Aside from religion, what issues caused the Pilgrimage of Grace?
Court politics, local feuds, fiscal policies
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By what year were all monasteries dissolved aside from an abbey in Norfolk?
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From what year during the reign of Henry VIII did the persecution of religious radicals re-start?
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Was there a growth in the intensity of the Protestant Reformation during the reign of Edward VI?
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Was Somerset a social conservative?
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What is important about the reign of Mary I?
NOT the number of people burnt but the fact that her reign is regarded as a time of tyranny
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What do the generation brought up under Elizabeth I associate Catholicism with?
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English Church from 1559
Doctrine that was fundamentally Protestant and an episcopalian government through bishoops
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What was a source of tension during the reign of Elizabeth I?
BIshops had regional control
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What would many Protestants have preferred instead of an episcopalian system?
Presbyterian government with parishes governed by a council without dioceses or bishops
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What was the religious stance of James VI and I when he came to the throne?
Committed Calvinist
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James I began to distance himself from the Puritan faction. Who did he increasingly identify with?
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When was the potential for division within the English church identified?
During the later part of the reign of James I
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By the 1620s who was there a growing conflict between?
James I's advisers who are seen as absolutist and groups in Parliament who believed Crown's powers to be constitutional and did not accept divine monarchy
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Example of James I's advisers
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Example of someone in Parliament who thought king's powers constitutional
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During the reign of Charles I what war was raging on the continent between Catholics and Protestants?
Thirty Years War
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How was the Thirty Years War presented?
Conflict between good and evil
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When did Charles I decide wanted to introduce moderate religious concept to Scotland?
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Areas of highlands were Catholic
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What did Puritans in Scotland think of Charles I's religious plans?
Tinged with popery
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How long does the Short Parliament sit for?
Matter of weeks
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Describe the political stance of the Long Parliament, created by new elections.
MORE radical
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When was there a Catholic rebellion in Ireland which inflamed polarization?
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By summer of 1642 what had happened?
Majority of Parliament had taken up arms against Charles I
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From 1643 to 1644 radical figures such as Oliver Cromwell emerged. Who were they backed by?
New Model Army
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When was the New Model Army established?
By Parliament in 1644
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New Model Army
Emergence of radical critique on English society
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Richard Baxter on the religious politics of the New Model Army
"their most frequent and vehement disputes were for liberty of conscience"
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What was one of the big questions during the Commonwealth period?
Roots of radicalism in this period
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What did many English Protestants find impossible during the reign of Charles II
The idea of having Catholic James on the throne
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What was significant about Mary II?
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When was John Smyth of Nibley born?
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When did John Smyth of Nibley die?
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What generation of Protestant was John Nibley?
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John Smyth
Son of a yeoman who owed knight service to the Berkeleys
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What did Smyth's lifetime see?
Opening up of wealth and power elites of his region
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In the Middle Ages great religious corporations and what family controlled most of the land and enterprise around Nibley?
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When did the Berkeley estate begin to decline?
Before the Reformation but was accelerated by dissolution
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What did sale of monastic estates lead to?
Dispersal of landed property into the estates of middling families such as the Stumpe family, whose wealth came from industry
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When were chantry lands confiscated?
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In Coventry how much was spent on the lands of Corpus Christi and Trinity in 1552?
Over £1,315 and a shilling
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What did the greater availability of land due to monastic land for purchase allow?
Urban merchants to secure investment properties
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Did York merchants generally deal in monastic property?
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What does Hoyle (1998) argue?
"the hypothesis may be advanced that the greater availability of land for purchase allowed the John Smythes of the world to invest their capital in land with greater ease"
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When was the Thirty Years' War?
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Where was the Thirty Years' War fought?
Modern day Germany, Poland and Austria
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What was the issue with the Holy Roman Empire?
Governed by a fragile series of dukedoms which were divided between Protestant, Lutheran and Catholic
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What was south of the Holy Roman Empire?
Swiss Cantons
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What was the key difference between the Swiss Cantons and England?
England had been a unified nation state since earlier in its history
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What did Calvinism have an association with?
Cloth trade
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What was significant about the cloth trade?
International - linking city states and nation states
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What was the cloth trade linked to?
Urbanisation and high levels of literacy
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Could most people accept the compromised Elizabethan Protestantism?
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Why did the godly not like the episcopalian structure?
Did not want to be ruled by bishops and would prefer to be governed on a local level by councils of established men known as presbyteries.
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Who were the 'godly'?
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Self government of village and town communities by patriarchs
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Did the godly have a problem generally with teachings of English church?
No but had issue with vestments
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Why did the godly not like vestments?
Regarded them as a barrier between the priest and laity
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What is fundamental to all doctrines of Protestantism?
Rejection of transubstantiation
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Anglican/Church of England priests wera while handing out food at communion or caarrying out services
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What is it important to do when thinking about religious debate?
Symbols and semantics. Was a less literate society than our own and also a more symbolic society than our own.
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God is omniscient so already knows if you are going to heaven. Believed that only a small proportion of people are predestined
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What do godly spend a lot of time doing?
Scrutinising themselves to try and work out if they are going to heaven
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What provides evidence for the way in which the godly scrutinised their behaviour?
Diaries and commonplace books
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Which group did the godly see as especially sinful?
Lower class people
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On local level what does Keith Wrightson think there was?
A cultural wedge separating the aed from the damned
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What did the godly believe about the early reformation?
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Did the godly believe in an active ministry?
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What kind of church government did the godly want?
Presbyterian church government by elders located in parishes and rejected rule by bishops
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What did the godly want about the surroundings in the church?
Simple church surroundings, lack of ritual, focus on Scripture and inner revelation
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Did the godly like illiterate or barely literate ministers?
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Church ales
Priest going to pub with parishioners
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By early years of 17th century what was a godly priest likely to be?
University educated, primarily from Cambridge
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What was Oxford generally associated with?
More conservative religion
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The position of what object within the church was important?
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Before the Reformation the WHAT was symbolically rich
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How did godly regard church furnishings such as altar as?
Ungodly - interior should be plain and simple to allow people to concentrate on sermon and whether they have been saved
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What had happened to the altar pieces by the restablishment of Protestant church under Elizabeth I?
Destroyed and replaced with simple table pieces
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Why was altar disregarded?
Just a table, not meant to have symbolic significance - minister meant to preach, not be regarded as an authority
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What were the key issues of religious conflict from 1558 to 1640?
Church layout, clergy's clothing, the fabric of the church and church teaching
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Church layout
Godly opposed the separation of nave from the church
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Clergy's clothing
Godly opposed ministers wearing elaborate robes
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Fabric of the church
Godly sought to 'simplify' churches
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Church teachings
Godly emphasised predestination
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How significant were the Puritans for majority of time?
Minority and in individual dioceses where bishops opposed Puritanism they could be persecuted
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Name a figure who was opposed to Puritanism
William Laud
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When godly excluded from national level of churc h what did they focus their attention on?
Local level - towns and cities, esp in south east of England and in East Anglia
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Why did the godly focus on south east of England and East Anglia?
1) Something to do w/ trade, literacy and concentration of population
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In his will in 1583 what did the Calvinist John Rochester leave?
His "great bible of the Geneva translation"
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What demonstrates the development of a lay reading public in Terling among more substantial villagers?
Prefaces that John Stalham addressed to the villagers of Terling in his public works
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John Stalham
Puritan vicar of Terling 1632 to 1662
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John Stalham's catechism of 1644
published "at the desire o divers for the private instruction of their little children and most ignorant servants"
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Did oral culture remain significant among the illiterate?
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As the Elizabethan settlement was consolidated, which county became noted for activity of Puritan ministers?
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In what part of Essex was Puritanism especially established in by 1604?
North east of county
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What happened in county of Essex in 1604?
Group of godly ministers published their critical survey of the state of the clergy in Essex
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When was the last Catholic vicar of Terling deprived?
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When was the last hint of Catholicism in a will in Terling?
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No signs of more radical commitment to Protestantism are to be found in Terling before what date?
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What is significant about the fact that a number of testators beqeathed their souls in unusual terms in Terling prior to 1583?
Suggests an unusual personal piety
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Thomas Rust - Vicar of Terling 1604-1625
Preacher and man of Puritan leanings in ethical matters though not nonconformist
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Thomas Weld - Vicar of Terling 1625 to 1631
Puritan zealot and uncompromising opponent of the Anglican establishment
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Why was Stalham, vicar of Terling, deprived in 1662?
Nonconformity to restored Anglican Church
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Who replaced Stalham as vicar of Terling?
Conforming vicar Robert Ridgeway
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What proportion of the churchwardens of Terling during the reigns of Charles II and James II had been in trouble at Quarter Sessions or Assizes or before church court for nonconformity?
One third
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What do Wrightson and Levine argue "moulded" the outcome of change to a "very large extent"??
Persistence of structures of wealth, status and power.
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Did social structure change during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?
Remianed relatiely unchanged
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What replaced a popular culture of communal dancing and alehouse sociability
More sober ideal of family prayer, neighbourly fellowship and introspective piety
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Who was powerfully anti-Puritan?
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What was significant about the church services introduced by Laud?
Puritans regarded them as Catholic in tone
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What did Laud do regarding the parish table?
Introduced division between it and the parish
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How did the godly regard the Thirty Years War?
Elemental struggle of light and dark
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What contributes to the outbreak of fighting in 1642?
Context of 1630s and early 1640s within Europe
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What was significant about the memoir of Richard Baxter, published 1696, and detailing boyhood in Shropshire in 1610s?
Full of reminiscing about sins - e.g. believing stealing apples with friends is the cause of his flatulence
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What did George Foster's pamphlet called The Sounding of the Trumpets (1650) discus?
Vision of a man on a white horse cutting down those higher than middle and raising up those lower - "I will... make the low and poor equal with the rich"
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What time did some believe they were living in
Last days before the final judgemetn by god
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Did some believe that the spiritual equality between rich and poor should be manifest in social equality?
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What are at least in part the roots of the radicalism of 1640s with Levellers, Diggers and Quakers who question social authority?
Doctrinal conflicts within Puritanism
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What does Peter Burke argue?
Between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries Europe experienced a set of politico-cultural changes aptly summed up in the phrase "the reform of populrar cultures"
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What do many agree happened to many games, calendar rituals and other popular customs?
Increasingly discountenanced by the ecclesiastical and secular authorities and measures were taken to reform or suppress them
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What does Keith Wrightson assert/
By the late years of Charles II's reign common heritage had become property of those "rusticall", "rude", "silly ignorants" who retained their superstitions
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What did historian Edward Thompson think about English forms of 'charivari'?
Characteristic element of plebeian culture
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What does Ingram think about popular culture?
Need to take account of cultural homogeneities before insisting on too pronounced split between popular and elite by 1700
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How does Patrick Collinson describe the religious changes of the 16th century that meant that most people were loyal Protestant subjects?



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How did the heterogeneity of protestantism develop?


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Card 5


What event lead to the questioning of divine right?


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