19. The End of History? 1989 and the Global Cold War

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  • 19. The End of History? 1989 and the Global Cold War
    • End of History?
      • In 1989 Francis Fukuyama argued that we were experiencing the 'end of history' due to the victory of Western liberal democracy.
      • Defeat of communism has led to 'end of history'
        • A big shift in the world pre- and post-1989
      • A Western-centric viewpoint?
        • Doesn't take into account communist states or even non-communist states to which liberal democracy cannot be applied.
    • Latin America
      • Wave of democratisation and collapse of military rule
        • Peru (1980)
        • Bolivia and Argentina (1982)
        • Uruguay (1984)
        • Brazil (1985)
        • Chile (1988)
        • Democracy or globalisation / economic crisis?
      • Communism continued in Cuba but withdrawal of Soviet aid led to 'special period' of economic hardship.
      • 1988 Chilean plebiscite, to determine whether Pinochet should extend rule for another 8 years through to 1996.
    • China
      • Collapse of communism in China seen as 'revolution that failed to happen'.
        • Largely as a result of extensive media coverage of Tiananmen Square protests.
      • Were the Tiananmen Square protests part of the same process that led to collapse of communism in Europe?
        • Very different political and economic context to Chinese protests.
        • Very different outcomes to Chinese protests.
    • Africa
      • End of Cold War conflict in SW. Africa.
      • Cuban troops, ongoing CIA funding for counterrevolutionary guerrilla war in Angola in 1980s.
      • US-backed S. African invasions of Namibia and Angola.
      • US and Soviet cooperation to end South African-Angolan conflict in 1988, and withdrawal of Cubans from Angola.
      • 'The high point in dismantling Cold War conflict in the Third World' - Odd Arne Westad.
      • Symbolism of 'tank man' and the 'Goddess of Democracy' statue.
    • Europe
      • Solidarity in Poland in 1980, declaration of martial law.
      • Gorbachev - Perestroika and Glasnost.
      • Replacement of General Secretary of CPSU in Hungary and beginning democratic reforms.
      • Gorbachev's speech to UN announcing unilateral troop withdrawals from E. Europe.
      • Hungary opens up border with Austria.
      • Fall of Berlin Wall in 1989.
      • Dissolution of USSR.
      • Slovenia declares independence in 1991.
      • Execution of Ceaucescu in Romania and election of Vaclav Havel in first open Czechoslovak elections, 1989.
    • Asia and the Middle East
      • 1979 - Iranian Revolution and Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Rise of political Islam.
      • Iran-Iraq War 1980-88. The first post-Cold War war?
      • Asian economic growth - Japan and 'tiger economies' models for China.
      • Communist political systems survived in Vietnam and N. Korea, as well as China.


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