Explain how far Napoleonic rule had brought about equality within French society by 1815?

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  • Explain how far Napoleonic rule had brought about equality within French society by 1815?
    • no, it had not
      • society
        • reintroduction of titles and honours system, created Legion of Honour in 1802 which gave out titles, land and money
          • majority of recipients were from nobility
          • 200 peoples titles made hereditary
        • created his own new system of hierarchy based on loyalty
        • own title made hereditary, passed to sons
          • not meritocracy
      • politics
        • still corruption, Lucien (brother) doubled 'yes' vote in 1800, adding 500,000 votes for army
        • those in power used it to alter voting, not fair system, 6 million voters power diminished by corruption
      • education
        • only sons of Notables got good education in military schools
        • ordinary people got moral education which trained obedience
        • girls did not get good education
        • could pay for private church school  education
        • showed system was still based on hierarchy
      • workers
        • forced to have books (livrets) which had to be presented to employers and stopped workers from traveling without employers permission
        • gave employers power over workers and created a new lower class with little power, reverting back to ancien regime
      • law
        • new laws under Code Napoleon which gave power to fathers and males over females
        • no equality for women
    • yes, it had
      • meritocracy
        • careers open to talent and promotion by merit, e.g. army
        • meant anyone could in theory become powerful, despite birth, everyone equal
      • education
        • increased educational provision, state schools for all
        • first time education had been for all, despite birth
      • economy
        • fairer taxation introduced, all taxes collected went to Central Treasury, where carefully monitored and checked income and expenditure
        • more equal than previous system, Ancient regime (only 3rd estate) and Revolutionary governments (corruption and inefficient systems)
      • religion
        • religious toleration, state salaries paid to all religious leader, Rabi, protestant ministers etc.
        • catholics persecuted under Revolutionary governments, September Massacres     150 priests in the convent of Carmelites massacred by sans-culottes.
          • this system brought equality
      • politics
        • people were involved, universal male suffrage, 6 million voters, plebiscites in 1800, 1802 and 1804
        • first time everyone could vote, not just landowners or nobility
      • society
        • no re-establishment of hierarchy based on birth
          • hierarchy was a concept of absolutism and ancient regime, under which people not equal
          • no hierarchy meant all citizens equal
    • conclusion: had the appearance of equality, but in reality and was more equal at start, however soon progressed into regime similar to old one
      • however, still more equal than ancien regime
      • considering women's equality may not apply as women rights  not viewed the same in Napoleonic era as modern day view
  • Point
    • Evidence
      • Explanation
  • Point
    • Evidence
      • Explanation

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