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Unification of Italy

Syllabus

Study Topic 1: Italy 1830 ­ 1870
Key Issues for Study and examination

What were the main obstacles in the way of Italian Unification 183049?

What was the Risorgimento and who were its key figures?

What were the main factors in the establishment of the Kingdom…

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Part 1: Italy up to 1849

Background information up to 1820


1. Europe before 1815.


In 1789 many European people were ruled by foreigners.
Nationalism only really developed in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.
Most people in the C18 would not have understood the desires and passions
aroused by nationalism.…

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Europe. Only Britain was never controlled. Napoleon was finally defeated at
Leipzig in 1813 and Waterloo in 1815.


The Napoleonic Period ­ in simple terms.

1. Feudalism disappeared in many areas of Europe. In places where it
was reimposed it was greatly resented.

2. The Code Napoleon, a sound and…

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3. Italy before 1820.

Stiles p5. Cameron p11. Map p9.

"Italy is just a geographical expression" ­ count Metternich.

Italy did not exist as a country in 1815 it had not been united since the collapse
of the Roman Empire in the C5.

a. Reasons for Italian Disunity.

A major…

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Italian laws were standardised and French civil and commercial legal
codes were introduced. The French also introduced representative
government into Italy with elected assemblies which gave the new Italian
middleclass a chance for political discussion and action. State
boundaries were consolidated several times, ending up with a peninsula
divided into…

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not with parliament, and a representative assembly must be elected
by universal franchise giving the vote to all men over 25 (not just
property owners ­ liberals). Both liberals and radicals were united in
their opposition to the `restored monarchies' reintroduced in 1815.

Metternich was opposed to nationalism and liberalism…

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Naples and Sicily

King Ferdinand I (Spanish Bourbon family) headed a brutal and
inefficient government.
The country was poor and backward ­ peasants turned to banditry.
Built Italy's first railway line in 1839 ­ no tunnels allowed (encouraged
immortality?)
Generally

Italy was backward compared to Western Europe.
Industry was slow…

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The 1820 Revolutions


In 1820 the resentment over the Vienna settlement boiled over into rebellions,
starting in Naples. They were encouraged by a revolution which had taken place
in Spain. By 1818 King Ferdinand had greatly increased the power of the
Church, allowing them press censorship, making freedom of expression…

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defeat the revolutionary forces from Turin. The Austrians remained until 1823 to
back up Charles Felix.

Definition: endemic: regularly or only found among a particular people in a
certain region.

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