Examine How Political Attitudes and Ideas Have Influenced Development Strategies

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  • Examine How Political Attitudes and Ideas Have Influenced Development Strategies
    • Grassroots
      • alternative to top-down/tree top development
        • rarely costs >£50,000
        • but v. small scale!
          • SASA! works in small communities but relies on distribution of information by locals
          • Send a Cow: sends one cow and v again relies on local distribution
        • Bureaucrats don't like it = v. easy to reject projects
      • development is tailored to communities
        • plan their own projects & seek support themselves
        • intergration with locals! Oxfam, SASA!
      • provides alternative to western development models
        • retains culture & social equality
      • barriers of language/ conceptual differences
        • hard to achieve things if everyone has to participate- else top down!
      • No larger goals/targets & not part of programme
        • No way of knowing when finished
        • No way of measuring progress
      • people centered and freedom for individuals
        • empowerment creates freedom
      • appropriate technology -Micro-hydro
      • participatory development - Chipko
      • advocacy - Oxfam
    • Neoliberalism
      • free global trade can stimulate economic growth & large businesses can profit more without government intervention
      • development achieved through 'trade not aid'
        • promoted by international organisations (WTO, IMF, World Bank) & & Washington Consensus
          • Washington Consensus (1989)
            • Neoliberal policy
            • reduce role of govt & increase entrepeneur-ship
            • privatisation, liberalisation, macro-stability
            • created SAPs (1987)
              • failed to recognise lack of economic structures (banking)
                • makes entrepeneur-ship impossible
              • some ecoc recovery but increased inequality
              • 60% increase in education fees (UGANDA)
              • austerity measures provide structures for managing debt
              • reduced debt! and ecoc  growth statistically
        • does work! but aid needed as a catalyst to put in place structures for trade
      • multiplier effect leads to upward spiral of economic growth
        • leads to exploitation
        • Nike in Vietnam
          • workers paid 5* minimum wage
          • microloans to start small businesses
        • only works until people demand better pay & negv multiplier as TNCs leave
        • still creates dependency on MEDCs
      • governments attract TNCs by reducing trade barriers
      • reduced government in population to encourage productivity and create growth
        • increase entrepeneur-ship??
        • however! reduces social wlefare!
        • increases standard of living and technology
      • increases inequality
        • those with money are alright to pay for services but those without struggle to afford them
      • people-centred, freedom for the individual, belief you will only be free without government constraints


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