'With reference to examples, examine the effectiveness of community involvement in development initiatives'

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  • 'With Reference to Examples, Examine the Effectiveness of Community Involvement in Development Initiatives'
    • Negatives
      • different views of what participation should be creates conflicting views
        • UNRISD: participation involves organisation
          • very top-down and assumes people can't organise themselves
        • FAO: participation in things that effect people is their fundamental right
          • rural development can only occur through active involvement of locals
      • small-scale (micro) so has limited outreach
      • Hard to operate in diverse conditions
        • requires a degree of homogenity else could create divisive problems/ nothing would ever get done
          • communities not necessarily homogenous
      • project may not ever finish
        • learning curve means work is ongoing
      • empowerment of women creates divisions if women have had no rights before
        • CHIPKO: people didn't like that women had a voice - human right's abuses
      • not an alternative to other development
        • to be used in conjunction with strategies
      • can undermine governments (Chipko Movement) and lead to political instability
      • limited to local communities and hinders large-scale development
        • CHIPKO: loss of higher-income jobs from TNC
      • GRAMEEN: becomes inefficient bc only 33-48% women lifted out of poverty and model can be misused
    • Positives
      • contribution of local knowledge and activities
        • increased chance of local of objectives and outputs being relative to the community
          • sustainable approaches are recognised
            • increases sustainability  bc of empowerment of women (see SDGs) & thinks about environmental impacts
          • CHIPKO: the women understood their environment and the damage being done to it
            • increases sustainability  bc of empowerment of women (see SDGs) & thinks about environmental impacts
      • greater honesty of officials
        • they are under public scrutiny
          • CHIPKO: brings cronyism into question
      • communities own the activities and development
        • they take pride in it & this increases happiness
          • sense of fulfilment, pride, happiness, responsibility and initiative
      • empowerment of local people
        • social equity
          • especially of women and increases access to resources
            • CHIPKO: political and social empowerment bc demanding to be listened to
          • recognises issues of gender inequality and increases participation of women
        • increased when based on a democratic approach
        • form of capacity building which increases confidence and ability to participate in development
        • GRAMEEN BANK: financial capital gives freedom to buy things (Sen)
      • capacity building: role of NGO/agency is to increase capacity
        • CHIPKO: increases capacity through  empowerment
        • GRAMEEN: increases ability of people to develop skills and use their environment
      • contributes to the growth of civil society
        • civil society: community of people linked by common interest
        • unity, bonding and cooperation in comminities
        • CHIPKO: local women working together to save their environment
      • mistakes and set-backs but this is how people learn - learning curve & causes self-transformation
    • participation
      • process by which people take an active and influential hand in shaping decisions that affect their lives
      • occurs at every level of development but is more common from grassroots bc involves locals creating their own development
      • became a buzzword in 1990's
      • local people are dis-empowered by government decisions in the name of progress


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