'Examine how the concept of development has changed over time'

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  • 'Examine How the Concept of Development Has Changed Over Time'
    • Introduction
      • Paragraph 1
        • Paragraph 2
          • Paragraph 3
            • Conclusion
              • 40's & 50's = state-led bc re-building economies fter 2 world wars & the Great Depression
                • shift to political left bc trials of socialism
              • 60's & 70's prove dependency theory bc of third world financial crisis
                • statism doesn't always work for developing countries
              • 80's & 90's = increases in social and environmental development
                • dependency theory again proved by failure of SAPs
            • 1980's = third world debt crisis
              • development clearly isn't working = post development theory (Arturo Escobar)
              • 1989: Washington Consensus & SAPs (neo-liberal)
                • Didn't work = Post-Washington Consensus by Joseph Stiglitz (1990's)
                  • Critique of Washington Consensus & created SAPs
              • created Brundtland report (1987)
                • sustainable development theory
                  • later creates MDGs and SDGs
                    • top-down but encourages grassroots
            • 1990's: human development theory & entitlements philosophy
              • Amartya Sen says development is freedom
                • importance of empowerment of people
                  • links to participatory and grassroots development where decision-making is with locals
            • shift in development to social and environmental
          • So, post-war development linked with state intervention up to 1960's
            • issues in ideology = rise of neo-liberalism as dominant attitude in 70's
              • 'right wing politics'
          • 1947-1991 = cold war
            • birthed Modernisation Theory in 1950's (proves capitalism right)
              • causes dependency theory in 1970's as a critique of capitalism
                • recognises historical circumstances & exploitation where modn theory does not
          • concerns about how rapid development has impacted the environment
            • Rachel Carson: Silent Spring1962
              • not dominant thinking- media discredited by calling her a alcoholic whore
            • 1971: founding of Greenpeace
            • 1972: The Club of Rome- there are limits to growth
        • 'Historical models of development give a normative impression of the degree to which in the past, since mercantilism and colonialism, development has been highly uneven and spatially polarised'
        • for a long time, colonialism = most accepted form
          • created GN & GS through mercantile trading systems & allowed industrial revolution
            • inspired by liberal policies of Adam Smith and David Ricardo
              • exploitation creates effective markets
              • economic growth synonymous with development
        • Liberalism is unstable = created Great Depression
          • = Keynesian Economics
            • During economic crisis, the state should create jobs
          • Both political left and right believed in statism up until 1960's
      • 'Development theories and strategies have been many and varied, with new approaches generally being added alongside existing ones'
      • Development = improving quality of life
        • debate over whether should be state-led or market-led
      • originally through western ideologies in colonial periods (mercantilism and Adam Smith)
        • WW2 = debate between state-led ad market-led development
          • free-market economies have failings = ideas of post-development and grassroots in the modern day


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