- Followed on from colonial ideas of development.
- Ideas of 'good development' are the modern development standards experienced by western countries, basically economic development.
- Supported by Walt Rostow's theory - the route to reach the ultimate stage of 'development'. Needed to move from agricultural societies with 'traditional' cultural practices to a rational, industrial and service-focused economy.
- Really took off post-WW2 as the USA saw the opportunity to be 'saviour's of 'less fortunate' parts of the world.
- USA saw sharing of knowledge and money as vital for development - 'The Marshall Plan' - set up to channel economic aid to fund reconstruction in Europe.
- Has underpinned work of international organisations such as the World Bank and national governments. (World Bank uses Gross National Product per capita to divide countries into development categories.)
- Many LEDCs tried during the 1950s, 60s and 70s to follow Rostow's model, former LEDCs such as South Korea.
- With greater wealth come other benefits such as improved health, education and quality of life.
- Based on development of Europe, so there is evidence to prove it can be successful.
- Assumption that benefits of such 'development' would trickle down to benefit all sectors of society, did not recognise social structures that created inequalities so free-flowing 'trickle-down' was blocked. (Women in Saudi Arabia)
- Very little attention paid to potential environmental damage or long-term sustainability. (Aral Sea disaster - increased agricultural productivity in environmentally marginal zone.)
- 'Mass consumption' - not all societies value the accumulation of material goods.
- Seen as too Eurocentric - based on the special case of western economies and was inapplicable to others.
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- 'Less developed countries' found themselves in a state of 'underdevelopment' due to the operation of modern capitalist systems - core industrialised countries have experienced growth and economic development through the exploitation of non-industrialised countries in terms of colonialism, trade or wars.
- Modernisation does not necessarily mean westernisation, countries must set their own goals appropriate to their own resources, needs and values.
- Countries should be self-reliant and in control of their own natural resources.
- First developed in reference to Latin American countries by Andre Frank (1971) - 'underdevelopment' of Chile and Brazil didn't exist until the colonial period in the C16th.
- Latin America developed more during periods when it was less engaged with the global economy (e.g. WWII)
- Popular during 1960s and 70s but still popular.
- Underdeveloped economies should withdraw or protect themselves from the global economy, so many LEDCs ahave adopted protetionis policies to promote development by limiting imports so domestic industries can improve. Some governments have taken over foreign-owned companies to keep profits within the country.
- Has underpinned some recent NGO campaigns such as Make Poverty History and Fair Trade.
- It is arguable that systems left inplace have made development more difficult (e.g. Kenya Tea relies on European market, all transport led to ports).
- Challenged by economic success of newly-industrialising countries of Asia during 70s/80s - Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, China, India.
- State owndership of industries could lead to corruption, and fewer incentives to improve products and becoemm more efficient or research new methods.
- Not all wealth of MEDCs has been gained through 'exploitation'.
- Dependency throists criticised for being overly concerned with economic factors, industrialisation is the key to development.
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- Widespread involvement of the state leads of inefficiencies and slow rates of growth.
- The route to economic growth is through reducing state intervention and letting the market set prices and wages.
- Promotes 'liberalisation' of capital markets.
- Gained popularity after tha Stagflation crisis of the 1970s, the Debt crisis of the 1980s and the Soviet Collapse of the early 1990s.
- Popular during 70s, most obvious in 80s with Regan USA and Thatcher UK. Still extremely popular.
- Most famous Neo-Liberal policies - The 'Washington Consensus'. Policies put in place in crisis-ridden countries by Washington based institutions (IMF, World Bank - SAPs, PRSPs.) Free trade, Privatisation, Fiscal Rectitude (cut expenditures/raise taxes to maintain budget surplus).
- Most rapid growth rates in countries such and Korea and Taiwan because they were least involved in distorting the market and most outward orientated.
- Economic growth in South America has been at historically high rates and debt levels are on average significantly lower.
- No consideration of social and political situations.
- Neo-liberal policies open up less developed countries to investments from large multinational corporations and their wealthy owner in advanced First World economies.
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Grassroots Development Theory
- Most development methods focus too much on the overall economic development of countries rather than meeting the basic needs of the local population.
- Local populations should be part of the decision making process.
- Theory came as a result of impact of large scale top-down strategies put in place by the World Bank and various governments which had very little positive impact on social development.
- 1980s, theory has grown in popularity since.
- NGOs such as Oxfam put in place small scale grassroots projects to help local population (e.g. Stone Lines - Burkina Faso).
- Theory is so popular that now even the World Bank often support schemes (India's NRLI).
- Benefits felt by communities involved in grassroots schemes (e.g. Rangamati Hills, Bangladesh by Water Aid and GreenHill NGOs) illustrate possible successes of such schemes.
- However, normally small in scale, debateable whether they could ever solve national or global poverty.
- Some dispute how democratic grassroots schemes actually are - likely that the sick, old or female may not be able to participate as equals.
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- Theories assume all populations of the 'South' are all the same and that the european route to 'development' is the only correct one.
- 'Development' projects have indentified a 'problem' which then has to be solved/fixed by the West.
- Development is associated with oppression and subordination by the West.
- There is no global solution to poverty and inequality, only local and democratically derived responses to particular issues.
- Strong focus on grassroots participation, indigenous people determining their own future free of Western expectations, confident, non intimidated. Determining what they want to do and do it for themselves, to improve their well-being, local views should be prioritised.
- Started in the 1990s, most influential academic is Arturo Escobar.
- Misrepresents the Third World and limits our vision.
- Relatively new theories discussed since 1990s.
- People should choose the way they want to live and actively move forard to create better lives without being made to feel inferior or 'backward' by not following a pattern. (e.g. People living in Kastom villages in Tanna in Vanuatu and Melanesia made a deliberate decision to reject westernisaiton/development.)
- Arturo Escobar uses the case study of Columbia - before 'outsiders' came into Colombia, there was no such thing as 'poverty' and no need for 'development'. By imposing external norms, the country was interprested as 'lacking development' which could only be addressed by adopting Northern forms of 'development'.
- Criticism of current policies without offering practical alternative ways to reduce poverty and oppression.
- Significant material improvements in life expectancy, health levels and education for some populations and regions.
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Key Idea 2: Concept of development varies
- MEDC/Eurocentric views tend to support Modernisation or Neo-Liberal theories.
- Vandana Shiva (LDC) - environmental activist, anti-globalisation author. Argued for the wisdom of many traditional practices. Assisted grassroots organisations in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Ireland, Switzerland and Austria with campaigns against genetic engineering. Major role in the global ecofeminist movement. Believes more sustainable and productive approach to agriculture through reinstating a system more centered on engaging women.
- Amartya Sen - Indian philosopher and economist, awarded 1998 Nobel Memorial Prize in Eoonomic Sciences for contributions to welfare economics, social choice theory, interest in the problems of society's poorest members. Argues that famine also occurs from inequalities in food distribution. Helped create UN Human Development Index to measure develoment with social aspects included. (LDC)
- Some MDC commentators have moved towards LDC views, i.e. Joseph Stiglitz - American economist, former senior vice president and chief economist of the World Bank, fired for citcising their policies. Critical views of management of globalisation, free-market conomists and neo-liberal strategies (SAPs & PRSPs) from IMF and World Bank.
- Grameen Bank and Flood Prevention in Bangladesh, Stone Lines in Burkina Faso.
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Key Idea 2: Top-Down
- Governments believe it's the most efficient way to stimulate development. Has worked in Western European countries, thuought that the wealth would naturally spread (Modernisation).
- Singapore - successful top-down development stimulation.
- Top-down responses can be vital in emergency situations.
- In 2002 a drought in Swaziland, South Africa - UN World Food Programme was involved in distbuting food rations to drought-stricken families and helped over 100,000 families.
- Infrastructure projects need to be top-down because they require large amounts of money and coordination over large areas. Bangladesh required government funding to control flooding over the whole country. Flood Action Plan - built thousands of kilometres of embankments along rivers - costly but well coordinated.
- Can produce benefits which stimulate development of the whole countriy's economy. Three Gorges Dam - provides 18,000MW of energy via hydroelectricity plants, meets some of the electricity needs of the growing Chinese conomy.
- Too detached from local realities, leaves people powerless to control their own destinies. Three Gorges Dam - 1.2 million people forcibly removed and moved to smaller properties and farms.
- Lack thought about indirect negatie impacts, food aid given by the UN World Food Programme imported cheap maize, farmers unaffected couldn't sell their maize. People received free maize, farmers ended up in debt and poverty.
- Large in scale, so have more negative environmental impacts - Three Gorges Dam had devastating effects on the ecology of the river, increased pollution, Siberian Crane and Yangtze sturgeon have become vulnerable.
- Involves more officials - increases chance of corruption, makes communities too dependent on government help (benefits, UK).
- Lager sums of money could be used for various smaller projects, $26 billion cost of the Three Gorges project could have cbeen used for a million simple WaterAid type schemes.
- Locals may not understand or support projects - e.g Burkina Faso, Stone Lines. European Development Fund tried to buil thousands of low earth walls, failed to see their purpose and knocked holes through walls.
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Key Idea 2: Bottom-Up
- Greater sense of ownership and more likely to help make projects successful is involved in the decision making process. (Burkina Faso, director of Oxfam visited to talk with locals, new solution suggested, helped contour lines correctly and held training sessions, locals learnt to build them in the dry season so it didn't conflict with crop production. Others saw success, within 7 years lines could be found almost everywhere in Burkina Faso. Millet yields 50-100% higher.)
- NGOs (e.g. Oxfam) more flexible/responsive, less layers of decision making, shorter lines of communication.
- Can capitalise on people's initiative and innovation. Grameen Bank in Bangladesh gives cheap credit to women in rural communities to start up their own businesses.
- Potential to change social development - Grameen Bank has improved status for women in communities.
- NGOs may only approach communities to put in place schemes their feel donors will approve of. (e.g. HIV victims over peojctets to help diarrhoea even though equal numbers die of each in Africa.
- True participation can be difficult - outspoken/more dominant members may take priority. Dominant members may limit discussion of weaker members.
- Dominant groups may resist giving power to others (e.g. husbands), in Bangladesh there has been an increased amount of domestic violence as men may take control of money from women involved with the Grameen Bank.
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Key Idea 3: Perspectives of development
- Governments, supra-governmental organisation andNGOs may have different views of development. Individual countries and organisations may see development in terms of their own agendas and priorities. Effective development should include all aspects of development (economic, political, social and environmental). The security of food and other basic entitlements are also essential.
- WaterAid NGO: Small organisation, meeting people's needs is the most important starting point for development prgress. Schemes such as a Gravity Flower water system in the Rangamatti Hills, Bangladesh, support and believe in bottom-up participaroty schemes.
- Oxfam NGO: Very large NGO, support basic human needs progress, spend time campaigning for changes in global political and economic systems. Global poverty will not change without changes to big systems and trade rules.
- IMF: Supra-governmental organisation, improving the economies of the world, helps by putting in place PRSPs and helps gain loans from the World Bank, poverty can only be sorted once a country becomes economically stable.
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Key Idea 3: Singapore
- Has closely controlled economic and social edelopment since 1965, rigid planning strategy by the Economic Development Board (EDB).
- Import substitution by developing heavy industries (rion and steel) - not appropriate for a small island state with few natural resources.
- 197 - switched to an export-based economy attracting TNCs to locate and specialise in manufacturing goods there.
- Wages kept purposefully low, extending working hours, curbed trade unions to keep labour force competitive iwth other countries. Rapid growth of its economy, manufacturing tripled by 1973.
- Brief recession in 1974 - government switched tack, restructured wages upwards with a 40% increase in labour costs by 1984.
- Increased productivity and upgraded industries echnologically.
- Superior, higly skilled workforce, high end products and financial prducts.
- GDP of $314.2billio, but GDP per capita of $62,400 (7th highest in the world).
- Ecnomoy has luctuated largely - growing at 14% in 2010 (1st in the world), slowed to 4.1% in 2014.
- Wealth is evenly spread.
- Unemployment rate of 1.9%.
- Invested heavily in education so it has a skilled workforce required by TNCs. New migrants have lower levels of education, therefore lower literacy rate than the USA at 92%.
- Put aside some income for pensions and healthcare, which must be paid for but is subsidised by the government.
- Low infant mortality rate - 2/1000(4th in the world), life expectancy of 84 (4th in the world).
- Moust housing government owned - 80-90% live in standard housing.
- Limited democracy, same party has been in control for 50 years (People's Action Party), TV is state owned.
- Developed the economy while maitaining a favourable living environment.
- Various environmental policies -three straegies: pollution prevention, law enforcement and environmental monitoring IIndustrial location based on land utilisation programmes, building and improvement of environmental infrastructures, sewer systems, waste disposal facilities. Car ownership restricted, very strict laws on anti-social measures. Establishment and operation of monitoring systems for air, water, and other environmental qualities.
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Key Idea 3: USA
- Neo-Liberal approach to developing American business for over 200 years.
- Laissez-faire allows iprivate interests to have a virtual rein in operating business.
- Private individuals, motivated by self-interest, worked together for the greater good of society if markets are competitive.
- Very few state owned organisations or businesses, most decisions made by private companies. Fewer laws on workforces, freedom to lay off surplus workers and develop new products.
- Ronald Regan was a strong neo-liberal - campaigned to send "the welfare bums back to work', advocated the Republican ideal of less government regulation of the economy.
- Fired 100,345 striking air traffic controllers who ignored hid order to return to work.
- Largest economy, total GDP of over $15 trilllion. GDP per capita is much smaller at $52,800 (14th in the world). Economy badly hit by 1009/10 recession, but growing slowly and steadily at 2% (171st in the world).
- "Two-tier labour market" - those at the bottom lack the education and professional/technical skills of those at the top.
- Practicaly all gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households since 1975.
- High unemployment rate of 7.3%.
- Social and economic inequality, bottom sectino of society lack education, poor medical care, likely to be unemployed/low wage. Over 15% live below the poverty line. Minimal welfare paymentsand security sysstems.
- Many struggle to afford health insurance and go without medical assisstance - IM is a high 6/1000 (169th in the world) and LE of 79 (42nd).
- Well-established democracy.
- Neo-liberal approach to environmental issues as well - government has limite their involvement.
- Large numbers of environmental regulations have been brought in over time. Wider range of issues than Singapore.
- Despite laws, George Bush sanctioned the exploitation of oil in Alaska, many democrat-led states (e.g. New York) now have stricter laws than Kyoto's. Neo-liberals (republicans) fear these laws will restrict America's economic development and leave it vulnerable to the growing powers of China and India.
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Key Idea 3: Food Security
- 75 million more hungry people in 2007 and a further 40 million in 2008.
- Latest estimate by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation( showed over 1 billion people now chronically malnourished due to "global economic slowdown and stubbornly high food prices".
- 2007 and 2008 - there was a huge increase in the price of food and energy, IMF food price index increased by more than 80%.
- Hih prices contributed towards pushing countries into recessoin.
- Households in devleoped countries spend 10-15% of their income on food, poor households in developing countries spend 50-90%. High food prices mean either spending a lot more on food or eating les.
- Households also have been forced to reduce any savings, sell assets, take out loans, choose staple foods over nutritonal products, sell-off assets vital to future income such as land or cattle, reduce spending on 'luxuries' such as healthcare, education or family planning.
- Many women may malso try to increase income through taking on insecure and risky employment, e.g. domestic workers, mail-order brides or sex workers.
- Wild price swings - difficult for farmers to make decisions about what crops to grow and in what they should invest precious resources.
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Key Idea 4: Participation
- Participation of local people can increase the effectiveness of development programmes.
- Trasnferable skills passed between locals. e.g. In Seetanagaram, India, the NGO Water Aid helped the lower-caste Dalits by teaching them mechanical skills to fix water pipes. Reduces their travel time and creates jobs for those fixing the pipes.
- Empowers Dalits - key aspect of participation, confidence to change their development themselves. The Good African Coffee Company gave local farmers the skills and ability to better their businesses. Also encourages them to set up their own schemes.
- Can change socil structures within communities. e.g. 'Water for Women' scheme in Rwanda - designing social-purpose water projects allow them to provide water at no charge to vulnerable women.
- 2008 in Tanzania, Chamwino was without access to safe water, forced to drink from the local stream which caused 60% of children to gain diseases and urinate blood. Chamwino is slum - no municipal water, requests were ignored. Faraja trust allowed them to install a 3.5km trench so they can access clean water, sense of ownership and community pride as they have contribueted to their own development.
- May include poor quality of skills and workmanship. .e.g. Chamwino, Tanzania - locals dugga trnch to put in water pipes at four points, but may not have theplumbing skills to connect them properly and maintain them.
- May cause conflict withint some gorups as social structure chnges. e.. WaterAid Seetanagaram, strong discrimination and some upper caste community members refused to let the Dalits fix water pumps. 'Water for Women', Rwanda - supplies cheap water to vulnerable women, avoids them being sexually exploited by the male water providers, brought them into conflict with males who felt they were driving them out of business.
- Although corruption is reduced in participation schemes, but doesn't disapprear (especially in Uganda).
- Clients were made to pay a membership fee to join a nationwide microfinance shceme, ut the pooorest couldn't afford this.
- Very smalle scale, doesn't have a big impact as it only affects local communities, e.g. WaterAid and Faraja Trust only impact on a small number of people at a time.
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Key Idea 4: SSDI and Survival International
- Shack-Slum Dwellers International: Alliance of NGOs who campaig on housing issues in slums. Grassroots, run by locals from slums with detailed knowledge to carry out upgraing activities. Also engables the voices of the slum dwellers to be heard by media and politicians. Mumbai - campaigned against plans by business interests to replace Dharavi slum with modern commercial properties and apartments.
- Survival International: NGO that works with local tribes an communities, enables voices to be heard. Campaigned with the Dongia Kondh people of Orissa, India against proposed exploitation of aluminium from their mountain the Niyam Dongar by Vedanta mining company. Gave the locals valuabel legal advice and support against the British company, gave them a chance to participate and fluently present their views, which meant legal decision went in their favour and mining did not go ahead.
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Key Idea 5: Views of 'Sustainable Development'.
- There is no single definition of 'sustainable development'. The most commonly used one was one used the in Bruntland Report: "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without comprimising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs".
- Some groups put more emphasis on environmental and ecological concerns, e.g. world Conservation Strategy puts emphasis on maintaining genetic diversity and preserving specis and ecosystems.
- Cornucopians: Believe humans are able to manage nature comfortably and improve it through engineering schemes(e.g. GM crops).
- Market-based: we should enable unsustainable practices to ecome economically costly (e.g. tax on petrol).
- Limits to growth/Neo-Malthusians: overpopulation is the main problem, and it's necessary to control poulatoin growth.
- Deep ecologists: wilderness areas and resources should be preserved with minimal use by humans.
- Communitarian: living in large cities is part of the problem, we should return to living in sma,,, self-sufficient communities (Vandana Shiva).
- Eco-feminists: patriarchal domination of society leads to many of our problems due to greed and competitiveness, shoud switch to more matriarchal society would improve environmental management.
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