'Examine How Ideas About Development Have Been Influenced by Economic, Social and Political Perspectives'

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  • 'Examine How Ideas About Development Have Been Influenced by Economic, Social and Political Perspectives'
    • Social
      • grassroots philosophy
      • importance of development for communities by communities
        • Decision making regarding development lies with local communities
      • empowerment of people through participation-especially women
      • occurs through NGOs and small-scale sustainable strategies
      • bottom-up development and state-led
      • active participation and decision-making of locals
      • development strategies of many countries since the 1990s
        • links to human development theory and development as freedom
        • links also to sustainable development theory
          • sustainable development is only achievable on a local scale
      • development with a focus on improving human capital
    • Political
      • It is the duty of the west to develop under-developed countries
        • links to colonialism and old colonial attitudes
          • Neo-colonialism
      • Links to dependency theory
      • exploitation of resources and modernisation of societies less developed then Europe
        • links to modernisation theory and neo-liberalism
          • development is modernising and becoming westernised
          • exploitation creates effective economies
      • Exploitation of less developed countries
      • development focused on improving political processes-- how society is organised and things are distributed
    • Economic
      • neo-liberalism as an economic ideal of market liberalism
      • development by removing traditions, monopolies and state intervention
        • Modernisation theory -traditions hold economies back from developing
          • promotion of  trade and exploitative industry for effective development
      • economic development and democracy are priorities
      • Free trade, development through economic growth
      • free markets create efficient markets through specialisation
      • industrial efficiency and roles of private enterprise
      • UK & US 1970's-1990's
      • development focussed on generating wealth
    • Eurocentric Attitudes
      • idea that development should mimic western attitudes, lifestyle and governance
      • developing countries promoting top-down development
      • top-down to increase economic output of their countries
        • eg. Narmada Dam, India- wants to supply 1.9m ha farmland with water & clean water to 3,500 villages
          • increases productivity, real income & economic output

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