WD3 Perspectives of Development

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strengths: gains resources, trade links, modernises society, discovery and power 
weaknesses: little consideration for individuals affected, problems at home, loss of resources, loss of culture and identity, exploitation and slavery.

The Scramble for Africa

1: what factors were considered when acquiring colonies? 

convenience of ports
materials and resources 
surrounding colonies  

2: what factors were ignored? 

political and geographical borders that already existed 
the effect on people 
the effect on the environment 

3: summarise the scramble for afirca: 

decided at the berlin conference 1884 which determined the partition of africa between european countries 

political reasons:

rise of nationalism in europe, mark of national pride and prestige


new medicines lowered death rate, new weapons


european duty to dominate, european rule seen as privileged

  • africa holds 10% of the worlds population

Mercantilism: get rich 

basic terms of trade: exports outweigh imports = trade surplus 
in order to get rich, your exports should exceed the imports

motives for colonialism 

  • european gain 
  • power and influence 
  • slaves 
  • resource and trade links 
  • cultural domination 
  • competition 
  • using labour 
  • tax revenue 
  • discovery

european motives for colonialism

  • european racism 
  • social and economic opportunities 
  • industrial revolution 
  • places for unwanted people 

6 Killer Apps: NIAL FERGUSSON 

Following the Great Divergence, countries developed economically whilst others decreased or remained at the same level, the west is rich because they have developed the 6 killer apps of prosperity. why haven't poor countries caught up quicker?

  • competition 
  • scientific revolution 
  • property rights 
  • modern medicine 
  • consumer society 
  • work vs leisure 


  • Britain left bankrupt following WW2, had to find a way to leave India quickly and to save as much money as possible, they could not afford to keep the colony so gave India its independence. 
  • Leaders were unsure of how to run India and attempted at bringing in a state where everyone lived in a single state side by side, however, muslim's feared living under hindu beliefs which created predjudices, this drove muslims to want an independent homeland. 

Key People 


  • early leader of the Indian Nationalist Movement 
  • non violent resistance 
  • imprisoned many times 


  • ghandi's protege 
  • worked with ghandi 
  • used ghandi's non violent attics 
  • became president in 1947 


  • leader of all india muslim league 
  • represented the muslims who were a minority 
  • concerned muslims would not have sufficient protection or political representation 
  • died within one year of pakistan being created 
  • fought for muslim homeland 


  • live in the punjab 
  • resisted the partition plan 
  • the new border divided their homeland 


  • his job was to find a way for britain to leave india quickly 
  • worried that if not done quickly enough it would implode
  • india were given their independence but didn't know what to do with it 

Cyril Radcliffe 

  • determined the border 
  • everyone was unhappy 
  • british say he did it correctly 

- calcutta: supporter of all muslim league (jinnah) 
- thousands of muslims gathered in protest
- radical muslims headed to muslim parts in anger
- local gangsters overtook
- violence expanded
- beatings and hitting the doors to houses
- muslims slaughter of hindu


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