(1) Ethnicity in language mindmap

This mindmap only contains Key Terms and Theorists in the ethnicity topic. For the rest of the ethnicity content for AQA, look at mindmap (2) 

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  • Ethnicity in language
    • Key Terms
      • Ethnicity
      • Nationality
        • Refers to the country of a person's birth or citizenship. Nationality creates patriotism
      • Code Switiching
        • The ability of a speaker to switch between different language varieties in their language use
      • Pidgin
        • A simplified language form creates as a result of language contact, usually to support some sort of activity like trade
      • Creolisation
        • The creation of a new language variety by language contact and new speakers growing up using it
        • The Process of Cerolisation
          • Pidgin: less grammatical; used in specific contexts; no native speakers (new variation)
            • Pidgin- Creole transition: pidgin (new variation) more established, used by 2nd generation native speakers (younger speakers); lexis and grammar more developed
              • Creole: variety used more by ongoing generations, variation is now recognisable and similar to the source language (pidgin)
      • Resistance Identity
        • The usage of creole could be seen almost as a political stance to internationally diverge by employing the ethnic dialect of the individual
      • Language contact
        • Where speakers of different languages interact with one another, often resulting in some form of exchange or blending of the languages
    • Theorists
      • Hewitt (1998) and Sebba (2003)
        • Identified a new development in the 1980s- 'Black Cockney'. A style used by young black speakers in London
          • Made up of the phonological, lexical and grammatical features of:
            • London English (Cockney)
            • Jamacian/ Caribbean dialects
      • John Pitts (2012)
        • Young black people who felt ignored by society might see their use of creole as a statement of resistence
      • Labov (1966)- Overt and Covert Prestige
        • NOTE: Minority groups try to adopt the prestige variety; while dominant groups adopt the opposite variety in order to fit in
        • Covert Prestige- A form of status shared by minority groups in society. Usually have alternative/ opposing views to mainstream society (e.g. MLE- Nonstandard)
        • Overt Prestige- A form of status given to a language variety valued and shared by mainstream society and culture (e.g. Standard English/RP)
      • Mary Bucholtz (2001)
        • Looked at the language of 'white nerds' who deliberately distanced themselves from white peers who are more likely to adopt 'cooler' black speech styles.
          • The linguistic practices that they did engage in, gloried their 'uncool' super-standard stance that was both culturally and racially marked: to be uncool, in this case, they were creating an alternative linguistic identity
        • The linguistic practices that they did engage in, gloried their 'uncool' super-standard stance that was both culturally and racially marked: to be uncool, in this case, they were creating an alternative linguistic identity

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