Gender Mindmap

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      • "There are differences between the gender's speech- neither better"
      • "Men use language to compete. Women use it to co-operate"
      • Avoids blaming men for being dominant and suggesting women speech is inferior
      • Maltz & Borker:
      • Koenraad Kuiper:
        • Studied all-male talk in a rugby team. Men play less regard to save face and use insults to express solidarity.
      • Holmes' Findings:
        • Compliments far less frequent from men = men likely to perceive them as threatening. Largest proportion of compliments were between those of equal status
      • Carib Indians:
        • In some tribal societies, men & women have different vocabs. they use. When explorers first encountered them, they thought they spoke different, distinct languages.
    • 3. DEFICIT
      • "Men's speech standard all lang. measured by"
      • "Women's speech falls short + week"
      • CRITICISMS: 1970's saw intro. of portable tape recorders but researchers tended to over-generalise
      • Robin Lakoff:
        • In "Language & Woman's Place", concluded women disadvantaged as they have to adapt forms of lang. making them sound hesitant + unconfident
        • Lexical items include vocab of women's work, precise color terms, empty adjectives and superpolite forms" also tag questions and hedges
      • Dale Spender:
        • Men historically controlled meanings of language.
    • 2. expand on DIVERSITY
      • "May be more differences between 2 women's speech than man an womans"
      • Region, class + ethnicity also influence language.
      • CRITISICMS: studies showed only some men and womens behavior showed patterns. Not as clear cut as them doing different things
      • Gleason:
        • Suggests social identity can be acquired  but liable to change overtime
      • Baker:
        • Individuals hold dif. identities- social,gender, sexual, ethnic. We are born with some but we alter them through our lives
      • Eckert:
        • In 'The Whole Woman' she critiscised linguists for treating gender as a discrete variable
      • Eckert & McConnell-Ginet:
        • Researchers should think locally + practically. Shouldn't make global propositions and should go into specific communities to look at gender
      • "Men traditionally had more power in society, women subservient causing lang. dif.
      • Zimmerman & West
        • Focused on how men are dominant in speech, e.g. speak more + interrupting- assert power.
      • O'Barr & Bowman
        • Studied language of courtroom and found female lawyers to be assertive and interrupt. Found witnesses of both sexes use Robin Lakoff's weak 'female' language, therefore concluding it as 'powerless language' instead
      • Holmes & Schnurr
        • Researched work place interactions and found context irrelevant, there wasn't typically masculine or feminine ways of talking, more mixed.
      • Political consequences include women being victims of male power. Frankel said in his book women should refrain from using 'touchy feely' language and apologies, they must talk and act manly in workplaces.


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