Cognitive Processing- Memory.

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  • Cognitive Processes- Memory
    • Multi-store model.
      • Atkinson and Shiffrin (1986)
      • Sensory store
        • First store. Modality specific with a specific store for each. Only what we pay attention to is transferred to STM. Duration of 2s before decay.
      • Short term memory
        • Info has duration of 12.30s without being rehearsed. Very fragile store. Info either transferred to LTM or forgotten through placement or decay.
          • Miller's magic number- capacity to remember 7 chunks of info. (7+/-2)
      • Long term memory
        • Info remains here for up to a lifetime (Banner et al 1975)
        • Stored semantically (meaning). forgetting may be caused by context
    • Working memory model
      • Tulving (1967)
      • Episodic memory
        • Specific memory of events, experiences and personal memories. Encode using context. Memory stored along with details. Can be cued. Godden& Bladdeley-drivers recall study.
      • Semantic memory
        • Relationships. meaning and how they work together. Memories about where located. Robust and resistant.
        • Dementia- STM goes first, semantic much later. Language stored and organised- semantic category.
      • Procedural memory
        • Motor memories- how to do things. Extremely robust and resistant to change. A form of implicit memory. Links with automatic processing.
      • Bladdeley& Hitch 1974
        • MSM is too simple. WMM argues STM made up of several systems. Modelled how stored info is manipulated in complex cognitive tasks.
    • Central executive
      • Centre control of the system. Allocates info to subsystems. Phono loop and visuo. Deals with complex tasks such as metal arithmetic and problem solving.
    • Visuo-spatial sketchpad (inner eye)
      • Stores and processes information in a visual or spatial form. Navigation
    • Phonological loop
      • Deals with spoken and written material. Phono store(inner ear) Articulatory loop(inner voice) used to rehearse and store verbal info from phono.
    • Levels of processing
      • Craik& Lockhart 1872-way in which we encode. Attentional +perceptual processes affect LTM. Deeper processing=longer memory.
      • Three conditions- Shallow- if a word was upper or lower case. Intermediate- if word rhymes with target. Deep- if word makes sense in sentence.
    • Testing effect
      • Dunlosky et al 2013- reviewed 10 learning strategies. Repeated was most effective.
    • Eye witness Testimony
      • Carries weight in court. Simons& Chabris2011- 37% American believe it to be enough to convict. 350 people death sentence later proved innocent via DNA.
      • Loftus& Palmer 1974
      • Tuckey& Brewer 2003-more likely convict male as bank robber with balaclava.
    • Clive Wearing-Clinical case
      • Damage to hippocampus by virus- led to amnesia-unable to form new memories.


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