B1.1 - Keeping Healthy

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  • B1.1 - Keeping Healthy
    • 1.1
      • A balanced diet includes everything needed to keep the body healthy.
      • In the energy taken in is less than the energy used, the person will use mass.
      • Exercise increases the metabolic rate which means that the chemical reactions in cells work faster.
    • 1.2
      • If you take in more energy than you need, you mass will increase.
      • Obesity can lead to health problems such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
      • People who take in too little energy can become anorexic.
    • 1.3
      • Your metabolic rate and cholesterol level can be inherited.
      • You need 'good' cholesterol for your cell membranes and to make vital substances.
      • 'Bad' cholesterol can lead to heart disease.
      • Regular exercise can increase a person's metabolic rate and lower high cholesterol levels.
    • 1.4
      • Pathogens are microorganis-ms that cause infectious disease.
        • Most pathogens are either bacteria or viruses.
      • Pathogens reproduce rapidly in the body and can produce toxins.
      • Viruses reproduce in cells and damage them.
      • Washing hands removes pathogens from them. Semmelweiss was the first doctor ro realise this.
    • 1.5
      • The skin prevents pathogens from getting in.
        • Pathogens are trapped by mucus and killed by stomach acid.
      • White blood cells are part of the immune system. They do three things:
        • They can ingest pathogens (they digest and destroy them).
        • They produce antibodies to help destroy particular pathogens.
        • They produce antitoxins to counteract the toxins that pathogens produce.
    • 1.6
      • Antibiotics kill infective bacteria in the body.
      • Some medicines may relieve symptoms of a disease but not kill the pathogens
      • Antibiotics cure bacterial diseases by killing the bacteria inside your body.
      • Antibiotics cannot destroy viruses.
        • Viruses are difficult to destroy because they reproduce inside body cells.
    • 1.7
      • Bacteria can be grown on agar jelly.
        • All materials and equipment must be sterilised so that unwanted microorganis-ms do not infect the culture.
    • 1.8
      • If a pathogen changes by mutation the new strain may spread rapidly.
        • Some new strains can cause epidemics and pandemics.
          • Epidemic - disease spread within a country
          • Pandemic - disease spread across countries.
      • Some bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics by natural selection.
    • 1.9
      • A wide range of vaccines are given to immunise people against disease.
      • Vaccines contain dead or inactive pathogens.
        • Vaccines can protect against bacterial and viral pathogens.
          • Vaccines encourage white blood cells to produce antibodies that destroy pathogens.
    • 1.10
      • The treatment of disease has changed as our understanding of antibiotics and immunity has increased.


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