Topic 4 glossary

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Amyloplast
sac containing starch ganules
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Tonoplast
membrane surrounding the vacuole
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Plasmodesma
ga between two plant cells through which substances can move through
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Parenchyma
plant tissue filling space between specialised tissue
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Cellulose
component in cell walls made from beta glucose
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Microfibrils
bundles of cellulose
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hemicellulose
"glue" that holds microfibrils together
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Pectins
glue holding microfibril bundles together
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Pit
thin place in the cell wall where a plasmodesmata can form
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Vascular tissue
tissue containing Xylem and Phloem
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Xylem vessels
vessels that transport water around the lant
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Phloem sieve tubes
vessels that transport glucose and other food sources
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Schlerenchya fibres
supportive tissue to keep stem straight and rigid
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Lignin
a polymer that waterproofs Xylem cells
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Autolysis
where the entire contents of the cells are broken down
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Transpiration
the movement of water through the plant from root to tip
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transpiration stream
the stream of water passing trough the plant
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cohesion tension theory
concept of transpiration involving cohesion and tension of water
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clinical trials
system of rigorous testing that new drugs must be put through in order to go to market
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Placebo
the control option used in dug trials
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Double-blind randomised controlled trial
most accurate and impressive style of drug testing. Neither doctor nor patient know whether they have the drug
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genetic drift
the possibility that an allele will not be passed onto offspring and so will be lost
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In breeding depression
where the individuals breed too closely and the animal develops harmful characteristics
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In situ
On site (in the wild)
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Ex Situ
off site (in captivity)
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Biodiversity
the number of different species in an enviroment
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Evolution
slow process where one species becomes a new one via natural selection
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Natural seection
whereby the individuals that are best adapted to their surroundings breed and pass on alleles
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Extinction
where an entire species dies out
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Species
a group of animals that have the same or similar characteristics and offspring produced is fertile
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Habitat
the environment in which an organism lives
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Population
the number of individuals in one habitat that can interbreed
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Community
Various populations in one area
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niche
the organisms role in its environment
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adaptation
feature of an organism that allows it to be suited to its environment
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Gene pools
all of the alleles of every gene in the environment (or species)
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Binomial system
naming system consisting of a two part Latin or Greek name
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Genus
shared by all closely related species (i.e. equus)
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Dichotomous key
when there are two possibilities of species out of a list of chracteristics
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Taxonomy
the name given to grouping organisms based on shared features
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family
where several genuses share common features
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Order
where several similar families share common features
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Class
where the orders share characteristics
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Phylum
classes with similar characteristics are grouped together
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kingdom
the groups under which the phylum are classed (5)
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Taxon
where members share one or more common features
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Homologies
a common feature in several species
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Animalia
larest taxon - cells have no cell wall and are able to move in at least one stage of life.
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Plantea
cells with cell walls and chloroplasts
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Fungi
cells with cell walls of chitin
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Protoctista
Eukaryotes that feed or photosynthesise but don't fit anywhere else
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Prokaryotea
prokaryotic organisms
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Domain
system with 3 branches of a phylogenic tree
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Archea
collection of species that do not respire with oxygen, found on a phylogenetic tree
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Genetic diversity
richness in the variety of alleles amongst a population
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Species richness
number o species present in a given environment
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Dominant
most common species in an envionment
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biodiversity hotspot
area containing a vast quantity of species
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

membrane surrounding the vacuole

Back

Tonoplast

Card 3

Front

ga between two plant cells through which substances can move through

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

plant tissue filling space between specialised tissue

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

component in cell walls made from beta glucose

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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