glossary

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Abnormal behavior
: behavior that does not conform to what is considered acceptable by people in society.
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Absolute poverty
: being without him basic means to pay for essential items such as food, clothing and housing.
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Abuse
treatment of an individual to cause them harm.
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Accountability
responsibilities of workers to act according to the directives of their professional body.
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Acquired disorder
a disease or disability that appears after birth such as an infectious disease.
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Active immunity
a resistance to infection that involves an individual making their own antibodies.
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Active listening skills
listening skills that are used during interactions.
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Addiction:
dependence on a substance such as alcohol or nicotine or on an activity
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Adolescence
The third life stage from 11-18 yrs.
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Adulthood:
The forth life stage from 19 – 65yrs.
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Ageing process
Changes in the human body over time.
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Amniocentesis
A method of genetic screening of a foetus inside the womb.
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Aneurysm:
: A swelling of the wall of a blood vessel that occurs where the blood vessel is damaged or weakened.
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Angiogram
An X-ray examination of blood vessels. Often used to detect atherosclerosis of coronary arteries.
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Anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder that results in severe weight loss.
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Antenatal:
Period of foetal development in the womb.
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Antibody:
Proteins produced by the immune system in response to stimulus by antigens.
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Anti-discriminatory practice:
actions to discourage discrimination against people based on gender, class, disability and religion etc.
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Apgar score:
A point score used to assess the health of a baby directly after birth.
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Assessment:
A report carried out to assess the needs of clients. Assessment forms the first stages of care planning.
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Autism:
: A disorder of the development of communication and social skills.
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Attachment:
: The development of a strong emotional link between a child and his carers.
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Autonomy:
The ability to be independent and sufficiently informed to be able to make ones’ own choices.
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Bacteria:
A group of microorganisms that are classified according to their shape. Certain bacteria cause infectious diseases in man such as food poisoning, meningitis, typhoid fever and MRSA.
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Balanced diet
A daily diet that contains all the groups of nutrients in the correct amounts to maintain health and fitness.
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Barriers to communication:
Any difficulty that can occur to prevent carers communicating properly with their clients.
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Basal Metabolic Rate:
BMR. The basic amount of energy required allowing the body to carry out its essential processes such as breathing and heartbeat.
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Behavior
The way in which people conduct themselves.
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Benefits
: Statutory payments from the government given to support certain groups of people in society.
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Beveridge report 1942:
The government report that resulted in the formation of the welfare state.
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Bibliography:
A list of secondary sources of information such as articles from journals, newspapers or books that have been used in researching material for an assignment.
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Black report 1980
A report entitled ‘Inequalities in Health’ produced by Sir Robert Black that highlighted differences in health status linked to various socio-economic factors.
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Blood pressure:
A measure of the force exerted by the blood on the walls of arteries. Systolic pressure is that exerted when the heart is contracting. Diastolic pressure is that exerted by the blood when the heart is relaxing.
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Body mass index:
A measure calculated from a person’s height and weight to assess whether they are underweight, of normal weight, overweight or obese.
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Bonding
Parental response to child attachment.
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Braille:
A form of writing based on using patterns of raised dots that allow visually impaired people to read and communicate.
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Bulimia nervosa:
A compulsive eating disorder characterised by periods of overeating followed by self-induced vomiting.
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Bullying:
A type of abuse that involves threatening, intimidating, harassing or being violent towards another person.
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Care organizations:
Agencies that provide care for a variety of client groups in a number of ways.
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Care plans:
A staged process that involves working out a client’s needs (assessment) and implementing a method of delivering of that care to the client.
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The Care system:
All the care organizations professional carers, self-employed practitioners and informal carers who provide care to clients throughout the UK.
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Care settings:
Any setting that provides care for clients such as nurseries, residential homes, hospitals and hospices.
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Care value base:
A basic set of values that encompass good practice when dealing with clients. Some of these values include treating all people with dignity, fostering equality and client’s rights and maintaining confidentiality of client’s information.
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Centile charts:
Charts used to measure such parameters as a child’s physical growth against the accepted norm for the age of the child.
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Challenging behaviour
Patterns of problem or difficult behaviour that may put at risk the safety of the carer.
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Childhood
: Second life stage from 4-10 yrs
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Child protection
Sets of guidelines that safeguard and protect the welfare and rights of children. Supported by the 1989 Children Act.
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Children Act 1989
: An act of Parliament that sought to update and improve the law with respect to children’s rights and child protection
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Client:
The person on whom the health or social care package is based
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Code of practice
Documents for carers and clients that outline agreed and acceptable methods of working in the care profession.
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Communication:
: The way in which information is passed on or exchanged between carers and between carers and clients in Health and Social care organisations.
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Community Health Care
Treatment and care that is practiced in the community – outside of hospital.
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Confidentiality
Maintaining the privacy of all information about any client. This is a basic principle of all good health and social care practice
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Data Protection Acts 1984 and 1998:
Acts of parliament that govern confidentiality and allow people to access their personal information stored on computer or on paper.
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Day care:
: care provision for certain clients such as young children and the elderly that supports client need during certain times such as nursery provision for under 5’s and day centres for the elderly.
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Death rate:
The number of deaths per year per 1000 people in the population.
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Dementia
: Illnesses that result from the degeneration of the brain leading to a decrease in mental ability
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Demography:
The study of trends in populations.
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Department of Health:
Part of the government that is responsible for planning and managing statutory health and social care services
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Dependant:
A person who relies on another for physical, emotional, social, intellectual or economic support.
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Development:
The acquisition of new skills and abilities.
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Development Norms
The expected pattern of growth and development for a client at a particular age.
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Diabetes Mellitus
: Lack of ability to control the level of glucose in the blood.
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Diet:
The type and quantity of food regularly consumed by a person
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Disability:
Inability to carry out any activity due to a physical or mental impairment.
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Discrimination:
: Treatment, based on a form of prejudice that is unfair to a client.
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Disease:
A state of ill health.
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Disempowerment:
: Preventing clients from having rights and choices to which they are entitled.
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District nurse
Nurses who work with patients or clients in their homes and in the communities in which they live. These nurses usually work closely with GP’s and are generally based in a health care centre.
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Domiciliary care:
Home care services within the private sector.
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Dysfunction
The lack of functioning of part of, or an entire human body system.
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Early Years Curriculum:
The programme that all children follow in primary school.It provides a foundation for their learning
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Early Years workers
: Professionals who work in child care and early years education with clients aged 8 and under.
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Educational Psychologist
A professional who is responsible for assessing and supporting children with special needs education
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Egocentrism:
Unawareness that others may have different viewpoints to yourself.
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Empathy
The ability to sense what other people are feeling and to be able to give adequate support as necessary.
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Empowerment
Allowing someone to have sufficient strength, confidence and knowledge to act on their own initiative and make decisions.
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Epidemiology:
The study of the nature, incidence and distribution of diseases
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Equal opportunities:
Giving all clients irrespective of race, religion, gender etc the right to access services and be treated fairly.
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Ethics:
Moral codes of practice based on the care value base
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Ethnic groups:
groups of people who belong to the same race or religion.
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Family:
Individuals who are related by birth, adoption or marriage.
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Food hygiene:
: Dealing with food in a clean and hygienic manner so that it is safe to consume.
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Formal services:
Care services provided by care organisations and by self-employed professionals.
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Funding:
Money that is provided to allow health and social care services to function. This funding can come from a variety of sources such as central and local government, charitable donations and businesses.
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Gender:
The identity of males and females.
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General Social Care Council
An organisation set up by the government in 1998 to lay down standards of practice and conduct for people working within the social acre framework.
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Genes
Instructions held on the cells chromosomes that dictate the body’s development.
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Genetics
The study of the genes held by an individual.
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Genetic counselling:
Information given to people that have genes that may result in a disease or disorder being passed on to their offspring.
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Growth:
Increase in physical size or mass that occurs as a person moves through their life stages of infancy and childhood into adulthood.
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Health:
: This is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not just the absence of disease or infirmity’ (World Health Organisation 1948)
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Health care workers:
Health professionals who care for clients with medical-related illnesses.
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Health care
Care that is provided through the National Health Service. This can be accessed through a variety of statutory, voluntary, private and informal providers.
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Health care assistants
Support trained nurses in carrying out a variety of general nursing duties.
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Health of the Nation:
A government report presented to the House of Commons in 1992 that set out a national plan to improve the health of people living in England.
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Health promotion:
Campaigns to provide people with information and advice to allow them to be informed about their own health and well being and to be able to improve it.
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Health visitor:
A trained and registered nurse who has undergone further training to be able to support babies and young families and the elderly in their own homes. They usually work from a GP’s surgery or from a health centre. They are also concerned with health p
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Hereditary:
Genetic characteristics passed on from one generation to the next.
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Homeostasis:
Maintaining the internal environment of the body within a steady state such as controlling the amount of glucose in the blood so that it is kept within the normal range for health.
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Hormones
Chemicals secreted by endocrine glands into the blood where they travel to a target organ to have a controlling effect.
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Hospice:
A service set up to offer care for the terminally ill.
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Hypothesis:
: A statement or theory based on a research question that can then be explored to gain relevant information about it.
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Income:
The amount of money that a household or individual receives.
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Independence:
Having the ability to carry out all essential and lifestyle tasks without support. Care professionals act to encourage as much independence as possible in their clients.
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Inequalities in health:
Differences in health status caused by socio-economic factors such as poverty, unemployment and education.
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Individualised care
Care packages that meet the needs of individuals
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Infancy:
The first life stage from birth to 3 years.
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Informal care:
Care provided to a client by family, partners or close friends
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Intellectual development:
The development of thinking and learning skills.
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Interpersonal skills:
Communication skills demonstrated by an individual that allow them to interact effectively and appropriately with others
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Intervention
Action taken by a carer to facilitate care provision that will improve a clients health and well being
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Key worker:
A named person who has overall responsibility for providing and co-ordinating a client’s care.
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Labelling
Giving an individual an identity that is based on stereotyping as a result of attitudes and prejudices
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Language development:
How a baby or young child develops their communication skills through a variety of sounds and noises that develop into words.
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Later adulthood:
The final life stage - 65 years and over.
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Life event:
An incident or experience that has a major effect on an individual’s life and personal development.
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Life stage:
A defined period of growth and development
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Lymphatic system
A body system that is concerned with transport of body fluids and the immune response.
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Malnutrition
Lack of health and well being due to an inadequate or unbalanced diet
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Marginalization:
the isolation or exclusion of a group of people or an individual from society.
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Maturation:
The process of growth and development that occurs throughout life and is controlled genetically.
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Means testing
A method of measuring whether individuals are entitled to various benefits based on their individual circumstances.
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Meningitis:
: A disease resulting in the inflammation of the meninges lining the brain and spinal cord. This may be viral or bacterial in origin.
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Menopause
The ending of menstruation that occurs during later adulthood in women
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Mental Health Act:
An Act of Parliament that allows clients suffering from mental disorders in England and Wales to receive care under supervision after leaving hospital.
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus:
MRSA: A bacterium that is resistant to most antibiotics and is the cause of a number of hospital acquired infections resulting in the death of some patients.
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Midwife:
: A qualified health care practitioner who works with pregnant women before, during and after the birth
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MMR:
A triple vaccination given to offer protection against mumps, measles and rubella.
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Multidisciplinary teams
Teams made up from a variety of health and social care practitioners who work together to meet the needs of clients.
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Munchausen syndrome:
: A personality disorder where an individual seeks to obtain medical treatment by a non-existent disease. This may involve causing harm to others in
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National Care Standards Commission
An independent body set up as a result of the Care Standards Act in 2000 to regulate private and voluntary health care and social care services in England. A number of services are required to register with the commission such as: care homes, childre
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National Institute for Clinical Excellence. N.I.C.E.:
An organisation of health professionals who give information regarding care and clinical treatment and it’s cost effectiveness. National minimum wage: The least amount of money paid to employees per hour set by the Low Pay Commission.
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NHS and Community Care Act 1990:
An Act of Parliament that resulted from the government white paper ‘ Caring for People’ introducing reforms such as local authority care plans into the NHS and social services.
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Nature:
Growth and development influenced by genetics
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Nicotine:
Additive drug found in cigarettes
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Non-verbal communication:
communication using body language and gestures.
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Notifiable diseases
infectious diseases which, when they occur, must be reported to the relevant authority. Examples of these diseases include: diphtheria, hepatitis and hepatitis.
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Nursing and Midwifery Council
The regulatory body set up in 2002 to regulate nurses and midwives.
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Nurture
Environmental factors that contribute to an individuals development
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Nutrition:
The study of diets and the way in which food is used by the body.
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Obese:
Being excessively overweight
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Observation:
A method of study involving a person watching the behaviour of another person or group of people. Observation can be participant or non-participant.
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Occupational diseases:
Diseases that are caused by exposure to substances in the environment or a repetitive physical act.
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Occupational therapist
Trained professionals who work with clients to help and support them to regain essential skills or make best use of their skills.
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Ofsted:
Office of Standards in Education: An organisation that inspects, monitors and reports on the services provided by early years services, schools and F.E.colleges.
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Osteoporosis
: A disorder that results in the reduction of bone tissue causing brittle bones. It is most often seen in the elderly.
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Pediatrician
A doctor who specialises in treating children.
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Parkinson’s disease:
A degenerative disorder of the nervous system
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Passive immunity:
Having immunity to a specific disease due to antibodies produced from another source being injected into the individual.
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Personal care
Care that meets the personal needs of a client including washing, bathing and toileting.
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Physical health
Well-being of the body.
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Policies
Statements that are laid down by an organisation to tell care workers how to implement codes of practice and statutory laws in their place of work.
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Pollution
The contamination of the environment with harmful substances.
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Prejudice
Preconceived ideas about a person that result in hostile feelings and discriminatory attitudes towards them.
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Pressure groups:
Groups who put their ideas and values forward to authorities such as Parliament to raise awareness of issues and highlight the needs of individuals and groups in society and to look at ways of improving services.
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Private practitioners
Care workers within the private sector who charge their clients’ fees for their services in order to make a profit.
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Primary health care:
Health care provided in the community such as by GP’s, health visitors, community nurses and dentists.
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Professional referral:
Referral of a client to a health or social care practitioner by another practitioner.
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Puberty
Physical changes that occur in the body during adolescence resulting in the development of secondary sexual characteristics and the ability to reproduce.
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Public health
The health and well-being of a given population and all the factors that may affect it.
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Qualitative data:
Information that cannot be recorded in charts or statistics or numerically. This information usually reflects people’s ideas and attitudes and opinions about a subject.
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Quantitative data:
Information that can be presented numerically in charts graphs or statistics.
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Race Relations Acts 1976 and 2000:
Acts of Parliament that make it illegal to discriminate against an individual on the grounds of their colour, race, religion or ethnic origin.
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Racism:
Discrimination against and unfair treatment of an individual or group of people on the basis of their race.
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Radiographer:
Trained professionals who work as part of a multidisciplinary team to carry out X-rays and a variety of other scanning procedures and to administer radiation treatment to clients.
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Radiotherapy:
Treatment of diseases such as cancers using radiation
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Rationale
The reasons for carrying out research into a particular subject.
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Referral:
The process of applying for a care service
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Registered nurse
A trained professional who has completed an approved nurse-training programme.
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Reminiscence:
Discussion and information sharing amongst elderly clients that includes sharing memories from the past.
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Research methods:
Methods such as interviews, observations and questionnaires used to collect information about a topic
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Respite care:
A care service that provides short-term care for clients to give their informal carers a rest.
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RIDDOR:
Regulations for Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences. Regulations that cover the reporting of accidents and ill health at work and give guidance for safe practice in the work place.
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Role model:
an individual whose behaviour may be copied or aspired to by others. Royal College of Nursing: A professional organisation for nurses.
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Self-concept
An individual’s view of ‘who they are’.
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Self-esteem:
The worth or value that a person attributes to him or herself and their skills and abilities.
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Self-image:
How a person views him or herself.
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Self-referral:
The type of referral to a care service when an individual applies for the service themselves.
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Service user:
The client or patient who is using the health or social care service.
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Sex Discrimination Acts 1975 and 1986:
Acts of Parliament that make it unlawful to discriminate against an individual on the basis of their gender or marital status.
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Sexually transmitted diseases
Diseases caught by unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner.
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Signs and symptoms:
indication and features of diseases. Signs are seen by people other than the individual who is suffering with the disease. Symptoms are felt only by the patient.
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Social Care:
Non-medical help and support given to people who are vulnerable or at risk.
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Socio-economic factors:
Factors that can affect an individual’s health and well-being such as income, housing and education.
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Socialization:
The process by which people learn about themselves and others and interact with one another.
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Social care worker
A professional who gives social care support
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Social Exclusion:
The way in which an individual can become isolated in society. This can be due to a variety of factors including lack of education and unemployment.
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Statutory sector:
Care services that the government is under obligation to provide.
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Stereotype:
Applying a particular label to an individual or group of people in society that is based on assumed attitudes or beliefs
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Stress:
The feeling of an individual that the demands on them outweigh their ability to cope.
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Target group:
A group of people that have been identified for a particular purpose such as being the correct group to aim a health promotion activity at.
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Team:
A group of individuals who work together for a particular aim or purpose.
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Third party referral:
: When a non-health professional applies for a care service on behalf of another individual.
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Tertiary care
: care that is offered through specialist hospital services
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Unemployment:
: This describes the situation when an individual of working age does not have a job.
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Ultrasound:
A type of diagnostic imaging that uses high frequency sound waves. It is commonly used to scan a foetus to check for normal anatomical development.
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Vaccination:
A method of producing immunity to a disease by injecting a changed form of the disease into an individual to promote the formation of relevant antibodies to the disease.
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Value base:
All care values.
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Vegans:
people who eat no animal products.
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Vegetarians
People who do not eat meat or fish
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Verbal communication
The transmission of information using speech.
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Voluntary care sector:
Non-government controlled organisations that provide care services that are free of charge.
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World health Organisation
A branch of the United Nations concerned with world wide issues of health.
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Third party referral:
An organisation set up by the government in 1998 to lay down standards of practice and conduct for people working within the social care framework
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Card 2

Front

Absolute poverty

Back

: being without him basic means to pay for essential items such as food, clothing and housing.

Card 3

Front

Abuse

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Accountability

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Acquired disorder

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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