= non-living conidtions in a habitat
= The energy required to initiate a reaction
= Area of an enzyme with a shape complementary to a specific substrate, allowing the enzyme to bind a substrate with specificity
= Movement of particles across a plasma membrane against a concentration gradient. Energy is required
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
= A nucleotide composed of a nitrogenous base (adenine), a pentose sugar and two phophate groups. Formed by the hydrolysis of ATP, releasing a phosphate ion and energy.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
= A nucleotide composed of a nitrogenous base (adenine) , a pentose suagr and three phosphate groups. The univeral energy currency of cells.
= Chemicals (antibodies) that cuase pathogens to clump together so they are easier for phagocytes to engulf and digest
= Different versions of the same gene
= Monomer used to build polypeptides and thus proteins
= Reactions of metabolism that construct molecules from smaller units. These reactions require energy from the hydrolysis of ATP
= Structures that have adapted to perform the same function but have a different origin
= Third stage of mitosis when chromatids are seperated to opposite poles of the cell
Antibiotic resistant bacteria
= Bacteria that undergo mutation to become resistant to an antibiotic and then survive to increase in number
A chemical or compound that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria
= Y- shaped glycoproteins made by B cells of the immne system in response to the presence of an antigen.
identifying chemical on the surface of a cell that triggers an immune response
The complex formed when an antibody binds to an antigen
Antigen-presenting cell (APC)
A cell that displays foreign antigens complexed with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces.
The strand of DNA that runs 3' to 5' and is complementary to the sense strand. It acts as a template strand during transcription.
Chemicals (antibodies) that bind to toxins produced by pathogens so they no longer have an effect.
The cell walls and intercellular spaces of plant cells
Movement of substances through the cell walls and cell spaces by diffusion and into cytoplasm by active transport
an abnormal rythm of the heart
Objects or strructures seen through a microscope that have been created during the processing of the specimen
Artificail active immunity
immunity which results from exposure to a safe form of a pathogen, for example by vaccination
Artificail passive immunity
immunity which results from the administration of antibodies from another animal against a dangerous pathogen
the production of genetically identical off spring from a single parent
the products of photosynthesis that are transported around a plant e.g sucrose
An abnormal rhythm of the heart when the atria beat very fast and incompletly
Atrio- ventricular node (AVN)
stimulates the ventricles to contract after imposing a slight delay to ensure atrial contraction is complete.
A condition or illness result from an autoimmune response