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Term Definition
Lexis and semantics Words and their meanings
Grammar Structural relationships within and between
Phonology and phonetics Sounds and pronunciation
Graphology Layout
Register Audience, Purpose and context
Mode Channel of communication
Discourse How text fits together as a whole
Pragmatics How a text is affected by society…

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Coordinating conjunctions Connect clauses (units) that have equal status
Interrogative pronouns Which, what, whose, who
Personal pronouns I, me, we, us, you etc
Demonstrative pronouns This, these, that, those
Determiners (4 types)
Articles The = definite article a= indefinite article
Numerals One. Two, first, second
Possessive pronouns My, your, his,…

Page 3

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Stand first Intro
Reverse out White on black background
deictic Importance of shared context
Person deictic Us, them etc
Spatial deictic e.g. there, here etc
Temporal deictic e.g. then, now etc
proximal Seems close
distal Far away
Pragmatic meaning Implied meaning in relation to context
Semantic meaning Actual literal meaning…

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Dual purpose Text with two purposes
ellipsis Missing out words or ...
face Self esteem
FTA Threatening someone's positive or negative
folk linguistics Attitudes and assumptions about language that
have no real evidence
gender The differences in behaviour and roles that are a
result of social expectations
Genre Category…

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Disjointed constructions e.g. He knows about computers ­ how to fix
Incomplete constructions e.g. Beckham to Owen rather than Beckham
passes to Owen
Non standard grammar
False Starts restarting
Back Channelling Sounds and words that show you are listening
initiation Opening a conversation
overlap A kind of interruption

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Bloggers Use web logs/blogs
Pre-closing sequences Signals one (or both) speaker wishes to end the
Metatalk Talk that draws attention to the act of talking
itself e.g. I'd better stop talking
Phatic speech acts Turns designed to maintain a sense of
cooperation or respect for the other speaker


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