- Created by: lucie
- Created on: 16-05-13 18:53
The passing of digested food molecules through the gut wall and into the blood
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The minimum amount of kinetic energy needed for a reaction to occur
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The place on an enzyme where a substrate molecule is temporarily bound during a chemical reaction. It is complementary in shape to the substrate.
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The movement of molecules across a membrane from an area where they are in lower concentration to an area where they are in higher concentration, using specialised transport molecules, and using ATP energy.
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Respiration using oxygen.
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Alpha Helix Structure
A form of secondary structure in a protein. It consists of a long polypeptie chain held in a helix by hydrogen bonds.
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A tiny air sac in the lungs where gas exchange occurs
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The monomer used as the building block of polypeptides and proteins. Each has an amino -NH2 and a carboxylic acid group - COOH
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An enzyme that digests starch into maltose
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Respiration without using oxygen
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A protein produced by plasma cells that binds specifically to an antigen
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A large molecule, usually on the surface of a cell, that triggers an immune response
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A major artery that takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart round the body
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A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
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An allergic response in which the airways become narrowed, causing difficulty in breathing
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Fatty deposits that build up in the wall of an artery. This is the underlying cause of coronary heart disease.
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The immediate source of energy in biological reactions. ATP loses a phosphate group to become ADP, releasing energy.
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A mass of specialised heart tissue that delays the wave of electrical excitation from the sinoatrial node for a fraction of a second. This allows the atria to empty completely before the ventricles contract.
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A valve in the heart between the atrium and ventricle, which closes to stop blood flowing backwards into the atrium from the ventricle.
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An upper chamber of the human heart. It has relatively thin walls.
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These cells form part of the immune system and produce plasma cells that make antibodies, as well as memory cells.
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A blue solution used to test for the presence of reducing sugars, such as glucose and maltose.
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Beta - Pleated Sheet
A form of secondary structure in a protein in which part of the polypeptide chain forms flattened, pleated areas held together by hydrogen bonds.
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A double layer of phospholipid molecules that make up the main part of the cell surface membrane.
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Forming a temporary bond between a substrate and the active site of an enzyme, or between a membrane protein and the substance it recognises.
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A solution used to test for the presence of proteins. The blue solution is added to a sample, and if a protein is present, it turns lilac.
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There are two branches from the trachea that carry air towards (or away from) the lungs.
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Small tubes branching from the bronchi in the lungs
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A solution that maintains a pH. It is often used in enzyme investigations to ensure that pH remains constant.
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A microscopic blood vessel that carries oxygen to the tissues
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A slimy layer found on the outside of some bacterial cells.
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A class of compounds made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. This group includes sugar such as glucose and sucrose, as well as polysaccarides such as starch and cellulose
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The sequence of events that make up the heartbeat
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A protein that carries molecules of a specific type across a cell membrane.
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The building block of which all living organisms are composed
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A device that spins at high speed, separating the denser components out of a suspension to form a solid pellet, while the less dense components remain suspended in the liquid supernatant.
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A protein or pore that spans the cell surface membrane and allows molecules of a specific type to pass through by facilitated diffusion
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Disease caused by a bacterium that releases a toxin called CT. This toxin activates a protein in the gut that transports chloride ions into the gut. This lowers the water potential in the gut and causes diarrhoea
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A molecule that is similar in shape to a substrate molecule that can bind to an enzyme's active site, preventing the substrate molecule from binding.
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Two substances that have shapes that allow them to fit together.
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A difference in the concentration of a substance between two areas
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A reaction that forms a bond and removes a molecule of water.
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These are arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle
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This is when a change in one variable is reflected by a change in a second variable
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This is when one molecule is taken into a cell using a protein in the cell membrane, alongside another molecule or ion. For example, glucose enters the epithelium of the gut alongside a sodium ion.
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The folds in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion that increase the surface area for ATP production
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The watery solution in a cell that is outside the membrane-bound organelles
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This happens to an enzyme when its tertiary structure is changed, so its active site is no longer the right shape for the substrate to fit in.
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A sheet of muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen. It contracts when a person breathes in.
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The period in the cardiac cycle when the atria and ventricles are relaxing.
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The movement of molecules or ions from a region where they are in higher concentration to a region where they are in lower concentration down a concentration gradient.
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Breaking down large molecules into smaller, soluble molecules that can be absorbed.
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A sugar made when two monosaccarides join together, e.g. sucrose and maltose.
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This is a strong covalent bond formed between the R-groups of some amino acids. These bonds hold protein in their tertiary structure.
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The first part of the digestive system.
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A microscope that uses electron beams and magnetic lenses to produce a magnified image of an object.
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A disease in which the walls of the alveoli break down, reducing the surface area for gas exchange. The patient becomes breathless.
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This a test for lipids. You shake the substance up with ethanol, then add an equal volume of water. If a lipid is present, it goes milky.
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System of phospholipid membranes extending through most of the cell, divides the cell up into compartments. There are two types: Smooth ER and Rough ER.
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Layer of cells lining an internal tissue, eg the lining of an artery or the wall of a capillary
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A protein with a complex tertiary structure that lowers the activation energy for a reaction to occur. It has an active site that is specific for a particular substrate.
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The tissue that covers the surfaces of the body and its organ, e.g. the alveoli.
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A cell containing membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum.
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Diffusion across a membrane involving protein channels or carrier molecules.
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An organic molecule consisting of a hydrocarbon tail and a carboxylic acid group. R-COOH
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A lung disease caused by breathing in dust and dirt. It causes the walls of the alveoli to become thicker, making gas exchange less efficient.
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A long 'whip-like' structure used for movement in some organisms, e.g. bacteria.
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Fluid Mosaic Model
A model of the cell surface membrane, which has mobile proteins scattered among phospholipids which move around gently.
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A monosaccaride that is found in the disaccaride sucrose.
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A monosaccaride that joins with glucose to make lactose
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A monosaccaride with the formula C6H12O6
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An organic compound which combines with fatty acids to form a lipid.
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A protein with a carbohydrate attached.
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Stack of flattened membrane-bound sacs in which proteins are processed and packaged for export out of the cell in secretory vesicles.
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Equipment used to break open and homogenise cells during cell fractionation
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A weak bond that forms between R-groups of different amino acids in the polypeptide chain. These bonds hold proteins in their secondary and tertiary structures.
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The breaking down of large molecules into smaller soluble ones by breaking bonds with the addition of water.
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This term is used to describe the 'head' of a phospholipid which arranged itself towards water.
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This term is used to describe the 'tail' of a phospholipid which arranges itself away from water.
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Part of the small intestine where dissolved nutrients are absorbed.
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The way that the body that the body responds to infection by a pathogen, using B-cells and T-cells.
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This theory explains how enzymes work. The active site changes shape as the substrate binds to make a close fit. The reaction occurs and the products are released.
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The muscles between the ribs that contract and relax to raise and lower the rib cage during breathing.
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This is a test for starch - you add this solution, and if starch is present it goes blue-black
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A solution that has the same water potential as the cell, so does not allow net movement of water into or out of the cell.
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A disaccaride made when glucose and galactose join together, found in milk.
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A person who does not have enough lactase enzyme to digest the lactose normally present in the diet.
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An enzyme that hydrolyses lipids
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A molecule made up of fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule.
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Lock and Key
This theory explains how enzymes work. The substrate fits exactly into the enzyme's active site, reducing activation energy causing a reaction to occur.
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The hollow cavity inside a tubular structure such as the gut or a blood vessel.
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A disaccaride made when two glucose molecules join together.
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Tiny finger-like projections from the cell surface membrane of some animal cells, e.g. those lining the small intestine. They increase the surface area for absorption.
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The organelle that carries out aerobic respiration and produces most of a cell's ATP.
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Name given to antibodies that are all same, and specific to one antigen. They are used, for example, in pregnancy test kits or in targeting drugs to cancer cells.
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One of many similar smaller molecules that join together to form a polymer.
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A single sugar, such as glucose or fructose.
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The name of the bacterium that causes TB.
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The name for a heart attack. This happens when the coronary artery is blocked by a blood clot or atheroma, so the heart muscle is starved of oxygen and some of the heart muscle cells die.
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This describes the cardiac muscle, which can contract on its own without any impulses from the nervous system.
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This fits into an enzyme, but not at its active site. However, it changes the shape of the active site so that substrate no longer fits.
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A sugar that gives a negative result with Benedict's test but a positive result with Benedict's test after it has been hydrolysed by boiling with acid and neutralised by adding an alkali, eg sucrose
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An organelle that contains the cell's genetic information, in the form of DNA, that controls the activities of the cell.
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Part of the gut that carries food from the mouth to the stomach.
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This uses light rays that pass through lenses to produce a magnified image of an object.
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This refers to the temperature or pH at which the rate of enzyme activity is highest.
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Oral Rehydration Solution
This is a means of treating dehydration by giving a person a drink containing a balanced concentration of salts and glucose, that stimulates the gut to reabsorb water.
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A membrane-bound structure in the cytoplasm of a cell, eg mitochondria.
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The passage of water from a region where there is a higher water potential across a partially permeable membrane.
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A process that does not require energy from ATP
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Any microorganism that causes disease
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A solid layer forming in a test tube after a suspension has been spun in a centrifuge.
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The bond formed when two amino acids join together.
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Co-ordinated waves of contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle making up the gut wall, which propel the gut contents along the digestive tract.
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Mechanism by which cells engulf particles to form a vesicle or vacuole. E.g. how a macrophage engulf pathogens.
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This is a type of lipid found in the cell membrane. It consists of glycerol with 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group.
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A small circle of DNA found in some bacteria. It contains genes additional to those in the main DNA of the cell.
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Large molecule made of many repeating smaller molecule (monomeres)
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Other cards in this set
The minimum amount of kinetic energy needed for a reaction to occur