Topic 12: Cognitive development (PS111 test 2)

  • Created by: Chookie
  • Created on: 18-03-17 12:40
What is Piaget's theory?
A child is an individual seeker and maker of meaning
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What is Vygotsky's theory?
A child's mind is made from working together
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What is the information processing approach?
The child's mind is a self-improving machine
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According to Piaget development is....
Stage-like and Domain-general
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What does stage-like development mean?
Development happens in incraments as opposed to a gradual thing
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What does domain-general development mean?
That it changes all aspects of performance at once (suddenly get better at language, maths and social skills)
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What is domain-specific development mean?
That it changes one aspect of performance at once (only get better at maths)
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What age is the Sensorimotor stage of Piagets theory of development?
birth-2 years
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What age is the Preoperational stage of Piagets theory of development?
2-7 years
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What age is the Concrete operational stage of Piagets theory of development?
7-11 years
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What age is the Formal operational stage of Piagets theory of development?
11+ years
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During the Sensorimotor stage what happens between infants senses and actions?
There is no thinking, it is a direct link
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What do infants remember during the Sensorimotor stage?
What they have just done (actions), not what they have just seen
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During the Sensorimotor stage do children understand object permanence?
No
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During the Sensorimotor stage, do infants have deferred imitation?
No
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What is object permanence?
The understanding that objects exist independent of your actions
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What is deferred imtiation
When you see an action and then copy it a while later
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During the preoperational stage do infants understand object permanence?
yes
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During the preoperational stage do infants have deferred imitation?
yes
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What is symbolic thought?
Information which is held in the mind and you can picture something without actually seeing/touching it
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What type of thinking do preoperational children have?
Centred thinking, they only focus on one aspect of the world
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Do preoperational children pass the conservation task?
No
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What is the conservation task?
When there is the same amount of liquid in a tall thin beaker and a small wide beaker, to pass a child must recognise they both have the same amount of liquid.
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What are the results of preoperational children taking the three mountains task?
They focus on themselves rather than others
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What is the three mountains task?
Children are presented with three mountains in a figuration and the experimenter is sat opposite them. They are asked to pick the experimenters view (reversed from their view)
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What type of thinking do concrete operational children have?
decentered, operational thinking
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What is decentred thinking?
When you can think about two dimensions together
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How do you learn during the concrete operational stage?
By doing things
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How is thinking in the formal operation stage?
Thinking is abstract (separable from real examples), hypothetical (not experienced) and unbiased
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How does Vygotsky think children learn?
through social engagement
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According to Vygotsky thinking starts ____ individuals and cognition is ___ first.
between, social
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A group of boys are learning how to put a ball in a cup according to Piaget how do they learn?
By investigating the world and constructing their own knowledge
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A group of boys are learning how to put a ball in a cup according to Vygotsky how do they learn?
By working together to achieve a joint goal, later skills will become internalised
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According to Vygotsky what is our more important psychological tool?
Language
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According to Vygotsky what happens to speech around 7 years old?
it becomes an internalised cognitive process
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According to Vygotsky what does ZPD stand for?
Zone of proximal development
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What is the zone of proximal development (ZPD)?
This is when a child can do something with guidance and then learn it
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How does the Zone of Proximal development relate to development?
Children develop by being assisted in doing something.
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What does the Information Processing Approach (IPA) focus on in terms of development?
The brain
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The IPA do not see the brain as a machine for manipulating information
False (they do)
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According to the IPA what does development involve?
Improving basic resources, constructing more efficient processes using resources
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What processes does the IPA think development involves?
Domain-general and Domain- specific processes
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What is episodic memory?
Memory of your personal experiences, bound to a time + place.
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According to the IPA do young children have good episodic memory?
No
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According to IPA what does remembering involves?
The active reconstruction of previous experience
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According to IPA does developing your mind help improve memory?
Yes
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According to IPA what increases your processing speed aside from improving your basic resources?
Myelination increases neural transmission
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What is Myelination?
The process of coating the axon of each neuron with a fatty coating called myelin, which protects the neuron and helps it conduct signals more efficiently.
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According to IPA what happens if you increase the processing capacity of working memory?
More information can be held active at once
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According to IPA what does inhibition do? (in relation to memory)
Helps suppress more irrelevant information
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According to IPA when your basic resources improve, what improves?
Processing speed increases, capacity of working memory increases, inhibition improves
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What is Metacognition?
Thoughts about thoughts
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Do children need to know they have a bad memory according to IPA?
Yes because then they will try to remember
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Why are Memory Strategies useful?
They can help you make better use of the resources you have
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According to IPA can behaviour/thinking be used to improve your memory?
Yes
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What is one Memory strategy?
Rehearsing information to remember it
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Can you pass your exam?
YES I CAN DO ANYTHING
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

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What is Vygotsky's theory?

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A child's mind is made from working together

Card 3

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What is the information processing approach?

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Card 4

Front

According to Piaget development is....

Back

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Card 5

Front

What does stage-like development mean?

Back

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