Learning and Behaviour (PS111)

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  • Created on: 04-12-16 17:19
What are the three types of learning?
Habituation, Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning
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What do all three types of learning involve?
Cause and effect relations between the behaviour and environment
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What is learning?
An adaptive process driven by experience
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What does experience do to the brain?
Alters the structure and chemistry, thus changing our behaviour
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What are orienting responses?
Automatic reactions to sudden, unexpected events
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What is Habituation?
Initially strong response to a novel event decreases with frequency of exposure
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Who did a study on Habituation with sea anemones?
Harris (1943)
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What was Harris's (1943) study about?
Habitation. He dropped water on a sea anemone and noticed after time they did not react as much.
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What is classical conditioning?
a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired: a response which is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone.
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Who studied Classical condition?
Ivan Pavlov
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What animal did Pavlov study?
Dogs
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What was Pavlov's original study?
He studied salivation and digestion in dogs
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How did Pavlov study salivation and digestion in dogs?
He hooked the dogs up to a small tube that collected drops of saliva as they were secreted by the salivary glad when the dogs were given dry food powder
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What did Pavlov notice when doing his salivation and digestion study?
That after the dogs had become experienced subjects they started salivating when they saw the laboratory assistant enter the room with the food powder.
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What is a neutral stimulus? (NS)
Something which does not elicit a response
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What is an unconditioned stimulus? (US)
Something which naturally triggers a response
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What is an unconditioned response? (UR)
The response you have to something which has not been taught
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What is an conditioned stimulus? (CS)
Something which you have learnt to respond to
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What is an conditioned response? (CR)
A response you have been taught to do
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What did Pavlov's experiments demonstrate?
That an innate reflexive behaviour can be elicited by novel stimuli
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What are the five basic principles of classical conditioning?
Acquisition, Extinction, Spontaneous recover, Stimulus generalisation/discrimination
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What is Acquisition?
The learning phase of classical conditioning, during which the CS gradually increases in frequency or strength.
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What is Extinction?
When the CR is eventually eliminated when the CS is no longer followed by the US. It reverses the learning brought on by classical conditioning.
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What is Spontaneous recovery?
Following extinction, the CR re-appears after a 'time-out' period.
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What is Stimulus generalisation?
A response produced by a particular CS will also occur when a similar CS is presented.
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What is stimulus discrimination?
If you use 2 different CSs during training, one of which is never paired with the US. The organism learns to respond to one CS even if it is similar to the other CS that is never paired with the US.
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What is a Phobia?
An unreasonable fear of specific objects or situations
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Who did a classical conditioning experiment on a 9 month old baby?
Watson & Rayner (1920)
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What was the study of Watson & Rayner (1920) called?
Little Albert
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How old was little Albert during Watson & Rayner's study?
9 months old
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What was the neutral stimulus in the Little Albert study?
The Rat before the acquisition phase
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What was the unconditioned stimulus in the Little Albert study?
The striking of a metal bar with a hammer
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What was the unconditioned response in the Little Albert study?
Fear before the acquisition phase
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What was the conditioned stimulus in the Little Albert study?
The rat after the acquisition phase
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What was the conditioned response in the Little Albert study?
Fear after the acquisition phase
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What was little Albert taught to fear through classical conditioning?
The rat
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How was little Albert taught to fear the rat?
The rat (NS) was paired with a hammer striking a steel bar (US) this caused Albert to be afraid (UR). This then meant when seeing a rat (CS) Albert would be afraid (CR).
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Did little Albert's fear of the white rat generalise to similar objects?
Yes
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What is a study which looks at classical conditioning in humans?
Flavour aversions in chemotherapy
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Who conducted the flavour aversion in chemotherapy?
Bernstein (1978)
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What happened in the flavour aversions in chemotherapy study?
Ice cream was given to patients just before they had chemotherapy. Months later 75% of patients refused to eat the same flavour ice cream as it made them nauseous (even though they knew the chemotherapy was responsible)
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In the flavour aversion in chemotherapy study what was the UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS?
The chemotherapy
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In the flavour aversion in chemotherapy study what was the UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE?
Feeling nausea
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In the flavour aversion in chemotherapy study what was the CONDITIONED STIMULUS?
The ice cream
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In the flavour aversion in chemotherapy study what was the CONDITIONED RESPONSE?
Feeling nausea
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In the flavour aversion in chemotherapy study what was the NEUTRAL STIMULUS?
The ice cream
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What is an issue with the idea that a stimulus leads to a response?
It does not consider the fact the inner mind might play a part in your behaviour.
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Who came up with the idea of intervening variables?
Hull
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What is an intervening variable?
The unobserved variables that moderate the stimulus and response relationship.
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What are the two intervening variables Hull talks about?
Habit strength and drive
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What approach does Hull's theory follow?
A computational approach
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What is habit strength?
The strength of previously learned stimulus and response connections after reinforced practice
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What is drive?
A temporary state of deprivation that motivates an organism to seek reward/stimulation
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What did Hull say increased the formation of habit strength?
The greater the number of times a response was followed by reinforcement, the greater the formation of habit strength
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What did Hull say reduces drive?
The greater the reward, the greater the reduction in drive
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What is purposive behaviourism?
a line of thinking which is concerned with observable behaviour, but also considers its underlying cognitive processs
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Who looks at cognitive maps?
Tolman
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What are some cognitive variables that can influence our behaviour?
Thoughts, beliefs, atitudes and motivation to succeed
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What is Tolman's view on behaviour?
That a theory of behaviour should consider the cognitive variables that intercede between stimulus and response.
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What did Tolman say about cognitive variables?
That they are important determinants of our response to a stimulus
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What did Tolman do an experiment on to test his theory?
Rats
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What was the first stage of Tolman's experiment?
To place rats on a table with various interconnecting pathways and at the end of one would be some food.
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When did Tolman start the second stage of their experiment?
When the rats had learnt the location of the food
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What was the second stage of Tolman's experiment?
They replaced the pathways with new routes, but kept the food in the same place.
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What did Tolman use to explain the difference between the stages?
That the rats had formed a "cognitive map" and as the knew roughly where the food was they took the shortest route
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What is a fault with Tolman's experiment?
That the rats might have taken the shortest route because of smell of the food
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Why was Tolman's influence important?
Because his idea rejected the stiff Stimulus - Response approaches of behaviourism and encouraged emphasis on the cognitive variables that shape behaviour
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What type of stimuli does habituation and classical conditioning say we ignore?
Unimportant stimuli
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What does habituation and classical conditioning say we can predict?
The occurrence of important stimul
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What is operant conditioning?
When an organism learns environment-behaviour relations by responding to (operating on) the environment.
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What is another name for operant conditioning?
Instrumental learning
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According to operant conditioning what makes a behaviour repeat?
If a behaviour has good consequences it is likely to be repeated
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According to operant conditioning what will not make a behaviour be repeated?
If a behaviour has bad consequences it will not be repeated
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Who created a "puzzle box" to test operant conditioning?
Thorndike
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What animal did Thorndike experiment with?
Cats
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What did Thorndike do to the cats?
Place them in a box
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What was the cat meant to do in the box?
Pull a leaver to open the door where they would then receive some food.
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what did the cat do when they were first put into the box?
They would do random behaviour (mewing, scratching, hissing) until they got out of the box
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What did the cats do after a while of being put in the box?
Their behaviour became more efficient until they operated the latch without hesitation.
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What did Thorndike call the relationship between a response and its consequences?
"The law of effect"
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Who improved upon Thorndikes box?
Skinner
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What was Skinner's box called?
The Operant chamber
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What is Skinner's operant chamber?
An apparatus used to observe, manipulate, and record an animal's behaviour
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Why is Skinners operant chamber better than Thorndike's puzzle box? (to do with time)
Subjects can emit responses more freely over a grea
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Card 2

Front

What do all three types of learning involve?

Back

Cause and effect relations between the behaviour and environment

Card 3

Front

What is learning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does experience do to the brain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are orienting responses?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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