Topic 14: Personality and the self (PS111 test 2)

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Chookie
  • Created on: 22-03-17 11:33
What is personality?
It stems from a fix characterisation "the role". It is not necessarily someone's true self "the actor".
1 of 69
What did Child (1968) say about the personality?
Stable internal factors make one person's behaviour consistent from one time to another and different from the behaviour other people would manifest in a comparable situation
2 of 69
What type of theory is Freud's theory of personality?
A structural theory
3 of 69
According to Freud's theory of personality what is the mind?
Something which is divided into three, conflicting, systems
4 of 69
According to Freud, what are the three conflicting systems in the mind?
The id, ego and superego
5 of 69
What is the Id according to Freud?
The unconscious, aggressive and sexually instinctive part of your mind. It operates on the pleasure principle
6 of 69
What is the ego according to Freud?
It tries to satisfy the 'id' while mediating and resolving conflicts between the 'id' and 'superego'. It operates on the 'reality principle'
7 of 69
What is the superego according to Freud?
It tries to match the 'ego-ideal' and operates at a 'conscience' level.
8 of 69
When does the Id develop?
It is there from birth
9 of 69
When does the ego develop?
It develops in the first 2 years of life
10 of 69
When does the superego develop?
By age 5
11 of 69
What level are our thoughts and perceptions according to Freud?
Conscious level
12 of 69
What level are our memories and stored knowledge according to Freud?
Precociousness level
13 of 69
What level are our fears, selfish needs, shameful experiences, irrational wishes, violent motives, unacceptable sexual desires according to Freud?
unconscious level
14 of 69
What percent of our personality operates on a conscious level?
10%
15 of 69
What percent of our personality operates on a preconscious level?
10-15%
16 of 69
What percent of our personality operates on a unconscious level?
75-80%
17 of 69
What stops the stuff from the unconscious becoming conscious
Repression, one of the Egos defence mechanisms
18 of 69
What was Freud's theory of personality based on?
Clinical patients in Austria 100+ years ago
19 of 69
Freud's theory of personality is based on generalisable research
False (it is not generalisable)
20 of 69
There is modern research to support Freud;s theory
False (there is research but it is limited)
21 of 69
What modern research supports Freud's theory?
The existence of Amygdala in the brain could be the id
22 of 69
What is phenomenology as a method?
When people give direct accounts of themselves
23 of 69
Does the Humanistic approach use phenomenology as a method?
Yes
24 of 69
When did the humanistic approach start to exist?
In the 1950s and 1960s
25 of 69
What type of approach did Abraham Maslow have towards personality?
A humanistic approach
26 of 69
What was Maslow's humanistic approach to personality?
The hierarchy of needs
27 of 69
According to Maslow does society run against of for the fulfilment of our higher needs?
Against
28 of 69
Maslow has 5 Hierarchy of needs arranged in a pyramid, the number 1 represents the top and the number 5 represents the bottom. What need is number 5?
Need for survival
29 of 69
Maslow has 5 Hierarchy of needs arranged in a pyramid, the number 1 represents the top and the number 5 represents the bottom. What need is number 4?
Need for safety
30 of 69
Maslow has 5 Hierarchy of needs arranged in a pyramid, the number 1 represents the top and the number 5 represents the bottom. What need is number 3?
Need for love and belonging
31 of 69
Maslow has 5 Hierarchy of needs arranged in a pyramid, the number 1 represents the top and the number 5 represents the bottom. What need is number 2?
Need for self-esteem
32 of 69
Maslow has 5 Hierarchy of needs arranged in a pyramid, the number 1 represents the top and the number 5 represents the bottom. What need is number 1?
Need for self-actualisation
33 of 69
What are people who achieve self-actualisation like according to Maslow?
They embrace reality, are spontaneous, interested in solving problems, accepting of themselves, lack predjuidce
34 of 69
Who has a humanistic approach based on client-centred therapy?
Carl Rogers
35 of 69
What is the point of client-centred therapy according Carl Rogers?
To attempt to reconcile self-concept with 'ideal self'
36 of 69
What is the Q-sort technique?
The systematic study of participants view points
37 of 69
How does Carl Rogers use the 'Q-sort' technique with client-centred therapy?
Patients sort statements in order of how much they think this is like them, they then sort them how they wish they could be (their ideal self)
38 of 69
The most common way to assess personality is by using only one type of test
False (it is by different types)
39 of 69
How are questionnaires used for personality assessments?
By relying on self-report by the self-evaluation of certain behaviours, thoughts or feelings
40 of 69
How are ratings used for personality assessments?
Provided by observers, indicating whether their friend/partner/stranger possesses certain chacteristics
41 of 69
How are projective tests used for personality assessments?
By presenting Ambiguous stimuli and asking for subjective interpretation
42 of 69
How are objective tests used for personality assessments?
By measuring objective behaviour relevant to some aspects of personality
43 of 69
What does MMPI stand for regarding personality assessment?
It is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
44 of 69
What does the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -2 (the shorter version) contain?
567 true/false items to assess psychiatry and abnormal psychology
45 of 69
Is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) criticised for reliability?
Yes
46 of 69
s the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) criticised for validity?
Yes
47 of 69
s the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) criticised for being different between white and non-white people?
Yes
48 of 69
What is one of the Projective personality assessment tests?
Rorschach Inkblot Test (Rorschach, 1921)
49 of 69
What is one of the Projective personality assessment tests?
Thematic Apperception test (Murray 1938)
50 of 69
What assumption are protective personality tests based on?
That interpreting ambiguous stimuli reveals underlying motives and personalities of subjects
51 of 69
Do the personality assessment protective tests lack reliability?
Yes
52 of 69
Do the personality assessment protective tests lack validity?
Yes
53 of 69
Are the links between the images and answers on protective tests easy to interrupt?
Yes
54 of 69
What is a basic assumption of the factor theories of personality?
That a series of items can be reduced to a smaller set of underlying fundamental dimensions
55 of 69
What is a basic assumption of the factor theories of personality?
That personality factors are underlying explanations for specific actions, thoughts e.t.c
56 of 69
What is the main method of factor theories of personality?
Factor analysis of multi-item inventories (reducing many items to a few)
57 of 69
What are the big five personality factors?
Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
58 of 69
What is openness to experience?
Being intellectually curious, open to emotion, sensitive to beauty and willing to try new things
59 of 69
What is Conscientiousness?
Tendency to display self-discipline, act dutifully and strive for achievements
60 of 69
What is Extraversion?
Enjoy interacting with others, tendency to be enthusiastic, action-oriented individuals
61 of 69
What is Agreeableness?
Value getting along with others, generally considerate, kind, generous, trusting and trustworthy
62 of 69
What is Neuroticism?
Tendency to experience negative emotions, such as anger, anxiety, or depression
63 of 69
How are the big five personality factors assessed?
With items asking people how to rate how they see certain characteristics about themselves on a scale of 1-5 (disagree strongly; agree strongly)
64 of 69
What is the big five factor model a result of?
Independent studies carried out in several countries
65 of 69
What is a strength of the big five factor model?
There is a lot of empirical evidence in support of it found in several cultures
66 of 69
What is a weakness of the big five factor model?
It is primarily descriptive
67 of 69
What is a weakness of the big five factor model?
There is no underlying theoretical framework
68 of 69
Who came up with Reciprocal determinism?
Albert Bandura
69 of 69

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did Child (1968) say about the personality?

Back

Stable internal factors make one person's behaviour consistent from one time to another and different from the behaviour other people would manifest in a comparable situation

Card 3

Front

What type of theory is Freud's theory of personality?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

According to Freud's theory of personality what is the mind?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

According to Freud, what are the three conflicting systems in the mind?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Personality and the self resources »