Vision (PS111)

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Chookie
  • Created on: 03-12-16 21:59
What are the three parts of the human eye as viewed from the front?
Pupil, Iris, Sclera
1 of 105
What is the pupil?
The opening of the iris. Seen as a black hole.
2 of 105
What is the iris?
A flat, coloured, ring-shaped membrane.
3 of 105
What is the Sclera?
A dense, white, fibrous membrane that is part of the external covering of the eyeball
4 of 105
What two things make up the external covering of your eye?
The cornea and the Sclera
5 of 105
What visible part of your eye does the cornea cover?
The pupil and iris
6 of 105
What useful part of the eye is directly behind the pupil?
The lens
7 of 105
What is the iris and pupil responsible for doing?
The iris controls the pupil letting in more or less light as needed.
8 of 105
What is the retina?
A layer at the back of the eyeball that contains cells sensitive to light, which trigger nerve impulses to send information to the brain
9 of 105
What is the lens?
The lens can change the focal distance of the eye by changing its shape. It focuses the light s rays that pass through it and helps to create clear images.
10 of 105
What does the lens work with?
The cornea to refract or bend light
11 of 105
What is the fovea?
A small depression in the retina of the eye where visual acuity is highest. The centre of the field of vision is focused in this region.
12 of 105
What is the optic nerve?
A nerve which transmits impulses to the brain from the retina at the back of the eye
13 of 105
What is nearsightedness called?
Myopia
14 of 105
What is farsightedness called?
Hyperopia
15 of 105
With Myopia where is the focal point which causes distant objects to appear blurred?
Infront of the retina
16 of 105
With Hyperopia where is the focal point which causes close objects to appear blurred?
Behind the retina
17 of 105
What parts of the eye might be faulty to cause Myopia and Hyperopia?
The shape of the eyeball in relation to the cornea and lens
18 of 105
Myopia is caused in general by the eyeball being to___
long
19 of 105
Hyperopia in general is caused by the eyeball being to___
short
20 of 105
Myopia can be fixed by___
Concave lens
21 of 105
Hyperopia can be fixed by ____
Convex lens
22 of 105
What are the two types of photoreceptors found within the retina?
Rods and Cones
23 of 105
What do photoreceptors do?
Convert particles of light into electrical signals.
24 of 105
What are the three types of cones?
S-cone, M-cone, L-cone
25 of 105
What do the cones provide?
Eye colour sensitivity
26 of 105
What does a S-cone do?
Responds to short wavelengths
27 of 105
What does a M-cone do?
Responds to medium wavelengths
28 of 105
What does an L-cone do?
Responds to long wavelengths
29 of 105
What does a rod do?
Responds to light
30 of 105
What colours can an S-cone see?
Purple, Blue, Green
31 of 105
What colours can a M-Cone see?
Light blue, Green, Yellow
32 of 105
What colours can an L-cone see?
Green, Yellow and Orange
33 of 105
Within what wavelength does an S-cone operate?
400-500nm
34 of 105
Within what wavelength does an M-cone operate?
450-630nm
35 of 105
Within what wavelength does an L-cone operate?
500-700nm
36 of 105
What do rods do?
They can function in less intense light, so allow us to see in the dark.,
37 of 105
What are the three things which can be used to describe a colour?
Hue, Brightness, Saturation
38 of 105
What is color theory which you need to know about?
The color opponent process
39 of 105
What does the color opponent theory suggest?
That our brain records the differences between the responses of cones to determine the colour. It does this by using three opponent channels.
40 of 105
What are the three colour opponent channels?
Red vs Green, Blue vs Yellow, White vs Black
41 of 105
What is the technical name for the side of your eye near your nose? (right side of left eye and left side of right eye)
The Nasal retina
42 of 105
What is the technical name for the side of your eye near your temple? (left side of left eye and right side of right eye)
The temporal retina
43 of 105
Where does the information about your left visual field come from?
The left nasal retina and the right temporal retina.
44 of 105
Where does the information about your right visual field come from?
The left temporal retina and the right nasal retina
45 of 105
Where does the information from the nasal retinas cross?
The optic chiasm
46 of 105
Where does the information about your visual fields go on its way to the primary visual cortex?
To the lateral geniculate nucleus
47 of 105
Where does the information about the left side of your visual field go within the brain?
The right side of the primary visual cortex
48 of 105
Where does the information about the right side of your visual field go within the brain?
The left side of the primary visual cortex
49 of 105
What is a receptive field?
An area (of the body) in which stimulation leads to response of a particular sensory neuron
50 of 105
What is an cortical simple cell?
A cell within the primary cortex which responds to an objects orientation.
51 of 105
How many layers does the Lateral Geniculate nucleus have?
6
52 of 105
Is there a left and right Lateral Geniculate nucleus?
yes
53 of 105
Does the information from the right visual field go to the left lateral geniculate?
Yes
54 of 105
Do layers one and two of the Lateral Geniculate nucleus receive information from rods or cones?
Rods
55 of 105
Do layers three- six of the Lateral Geniculate nucleus receive information from rods or cones?
Cones
56 of 105
What is the name of the layers 3-6 of the Lateral Geniculate nucleus?
Parvocellular
57 of 105
What is the name of the layers 1-2 of the Lateral Geniculate nucleus?
Magnocellular
58 of 105
What are the other names for the primary visual cortex?
V1 or Striate cortex
59 of 105
After the primary visual cortex information goes elsewhere, where does it go?
Through the extra-striate or prestriate cortex
60 of 105
What are the visual areas located in the extra-striate or prestriate cortex called?
V2, V3, V3A, V4,V5,V5A
61 of 105
When talking about vision, what does a V# (where # is a number) stand for?
One of the visual areas within the brain
62 of 105
What do visual areas do?
Each area is retinotopically organised, meaning they map the visual information from the retina to neurons in the brain, making a 2D representation of the image.
63 of 105
What is the V5/MT (5th visual area) responsible for?
It is responsible for motion perception
64 of 105
What is the V4/MT (4th visual area) responsible for?
It is responsible for colour
65 of 105
What provides evidence for the different visual areas of the brain?
PET (Positron emission tomography) studies.
66 of 105
What part of the temporal and occipital lobe is responsible for recognising faces?
The Fusiform gyrus
67 of 105
What is Cerebral hemiachromatopsia?
When there is a selective loss of colour vision. Can only see colour from one side of the visual field. There is selective damage in the inferior occipital lobe, specific damage to V4 in left side of brain.
68 of 105
What is Akinetopsia?
When there is a selective impairment of motion perception. Cannot tell when cars are moving e.t.c
69 of 105
What is Prosopagnosia?
When you are unable to recognise faces
70 of 105
What does the dorsal stream control?
Actions
71 of 105
What does the ventral stream control?
Awareness of objects and consciousness
72 of 105
What is Blindsight?
Where there is damage to the V1 area and people are not conscious of objects around them. But are subconsciously able to avoid them.
73 of 105
What is Visual form Agnosia?
When there is damage to the ventral stream areas. There is intact action control, but impaired visual recognition. (for example unable to tell if something is straight or not)
74 of 105
What is visual neglect?
When after damage to one side of the brain there is a lack of awareness and knowledge of one side of their visual field.
75 of 105
What are the 5 Gestalt principles?
Proximity, Similarity, Good continuation, Closure and Common fate
76 of 105
What is Proximity? (In relation to the Gestalt Principles)
That when elements are placed close together they tend to be perceived as a group.
77 of 105
What is similarity? (In relation to the Gestalt Principles)
When objects look similar to one another they will be perceived as a group
78 of 105
What is Good continuation? (In relation to the Gestalt Principles)
That we have a preference for continuous figures. We will often see images as "flowing" even when they are not.
79 of 105
What is closure? (In relation to the Gestalt Principles)
Is when an object is incomplete. If enough of the shape is indicated, people perceive the gaps by filling in the missing information.
80 of 105
What is Common Fate? (In relation to the Gestalt Principles)
We perceive visual elements that move in the same speed and/or direction as parts of a single stimulus.
81 of 105
What are two theories about object recognition?
Template models and Recognition by-components.
82 of 105
What is the template model theory?
That we can detect patterns by matching visual input with a set of templates, if any template matches then we can deduce what that input is.
83 of 105
What is a problem with the template model theory?
That it is not powerful enough for general object recognition and some things can look very similar to others.
84 of 105
What is Translational Invariance?
When an object is moved to a new position in the environment, a different portion of the retina is stimulated
85 of 105
What is size Invariance?
Objects can be recognised despite variations in actual or apparent size
86 of 105
What is Rotational Invariance?
People are capable of recognising objects from many different vantage points, even views that have never before been seen.
87 of 105
Does the template model theory account for size, translational and rotational invariance?
Yes
88 of 105
Who came up with the Recognition-by-components theory?
Biederman (1987)
89 of 105
What is Biederman's Recognition-by-components theory?
Recognition involves recognising object elements (geons) and their configuration
90 of 105
According to Biederman, how many Geons are there?
36
91 of 105
Does the Recognition-by-components theory account for size, translational and rotational invariance?
Yes
92 of 105
What allows to give us 3D perception?
Depth cues
93 of 105
What are the two types of depth cues?
Monocular and Binocular
94 of 105
What are Bioncular depth cues?
Because the eyes are apart they give slightly different images. The difference between these images (retinal disparity) can be used as cue for depth/distance.
95 of 105
What are Monocular vision cues?
As we can still have depth perception with one eye there are other cues which can inform us about depth.
96 of 105
What are the Monocular vision cues?
Motion parallax and Pictorial (Interposition/occlusion, texture, haze, elevation, size, perspective and shading)
97 of 105
What is Motion parallax?
The tendency when moving forwards rapidly we perceive differential speeds in objects passing by
98 of 105
What is Interposition/Occlusion? (A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
When one object is blocked by another. It can be used to provide information on distance.
99 of 105
What is texture? (A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
The level of detail you can see in an image. The closer the image is to you, the more detail you will see
100 of 105
What is Haze?(A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
This is the fact that hazy weather can alter your perception of depth. Things seem closer in clear weather than hazy weather.
101 of 105
What is Elevation?(A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
If an object is closer to the horizon line it is seen as further away, we can use this to work out the height of objects.
102 of 105
what is Size? (A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
The tendency to perceive objects as staying the same size, despite the changes in your distance from an object
103 of 105
What is Perspective? (A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
The property of parallel lines converging at infinity allows us to reconstruct the relative distance of different parts of a scene.
104 of 105
What is shading? (A Monocular Pictorial depth cue)
The nearer an object is to a light source, the brigher its surface. Darker objects appear further away than brighter ones.
105 of 105

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the pupil?

Back

The opening of the iris. Seen as a black hole.

Card 3

Front

What is the iris?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the Sclera?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What two things make up the external covering of your eye?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Visual System resources »