The history of Psychology (PS111)

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  • Created on: 29-11-16 17:29
What is psychology?
The scientific study of behaviour
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What are the types of Academic Psychology?
Biological, Cognitive, Developmental and Social
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What is Biological Psychology?
When you study the biological basis of behaviour
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What is Cognitive Psychology?
When you study the mental processes (Perception, attention, learning and memory)
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What is Developmental Psychology?
When you study cognitive, social and emotional development
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What is Social Psychology?
When you study the influence of others on the individual
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What are the types of Applied Psychology?
Clinical, Educational, Occupational, Health and Forensic.
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What is Clinical Psychology?
The assessment, diagnosis and treatment of emotional and behavioural problems.
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What is Educational Psychology?
The support to children within an educational setting with emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties.
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What is Occupational Psychology?
Looking at selection, training ergonomics and staff satisfaction.
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What is Health Psychology?
The application of psychological knowledge to promote healthy behaviour.
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What is Forensic Psychology?
The application of psychology to the criminal justice system.
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What is the BPS?
The British Psychological Society
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Which philosophers helped influence psychology?
Descartes, Spinoza, Locke and Hume.
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How did Descartes influence psychology?
With Dualism. The idea that all reality can be divided into 2 distinct entities: mind and matter.
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How did Spinoza influence psychology?
With Double Aspect Theory. The idea that the order and connection of mental reality is the same as the order and connection of physical reality.
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How did Locke and Hume influence psychology?
With Empiricism. The idea that truth and knowledge can only be sought through observation and experience.
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What Physiologist influenced psychology?
Hermann von Helmholtz
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How did Hermann von Helmholtz influence psychology?
He highlighted the important link between physiology and psychology. (The study of perception)
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What Psychophysicist influenced psychology?
Ernst Weber
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How did Ernst Weber influence Psychology?
Weber showed that the study of perceptual phenomena could be scientific.
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Who was the founder of Psychology as a Scientific Discipline?
Wilhelm Wundt
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When did Wilhelm Wundt set up the first psychology laboratory?
1879
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What did Wundt aim to do?
Study the human mind via scientific means.
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Which biologist influenced Psychology?
Charles Darwin
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How did Charles Darwin influence Psychology?
He studied animals to assist in the understanding of human nature
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\What fields of psychology did Darwin help develop?
Comparative and evolutionary.
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Name some other key figures in Psychology.
William James, Hermann Ebbinghaus, Alfred Binet, Jean Piaget.
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What did William James do?
Helped establish scientific psychology in North America
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What did Hermann Ebbinghaus do?
Conducted detailed experiments on memory using himself as a participant
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What did Alfred Binet do?
Devised the first intelligence test
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What did Jean Piaget do?
They were influential in establishing developmental psychology and showing how cognition and intelligence develops through childhood.
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Who founded Psychoanalysis?
Sigmund Freud
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What did Freud say about abnormal behavior?
He regarded it as a mental illness that needed treatment.
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What aspects does psychoanalysis consist of?
1. A theory of personality (focused on the unconscious). 2. A form of therapeutic treatment based on the theory.
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How did Freud develop therapy?
He developed a systematic psychological approach to therapy
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What subjects did Freud extend psychology to include?
Developmental processes, motivation, personality, sexual behaviour.
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What is a major development in Psychology beginning with B?
Behaviourism
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According to Behaviourism, Psychology should...
be seen as a science
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Behaviourism is primarily concerned with.....
Behaviour
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According to Behaviourism When born the mind is....
'tabula rasa' (blank slate)
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According to Behaviourism there is....
No free will
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According to Behaviourism behaviour due to...
stimulus - response associations.
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According to behaviourism the principles of learning in animals _ _ _ _ apply to humans also
do not
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What did Pavlov do an experiment on?
Classical Conditioning
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What did Pavlov do?
Pair food with the sound of a bell, and noted that the dogs would salivate when hearing the bell.
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What did Pavlov demonstrate?
A fundamental stimulus - response learning principle
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Who launched behavioural psychology with an article?
John B. Watson
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What did Watson think psychology should be?
The objective study of behaviour and the stimuli which produces such behaviour.
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What was Watson's behaviourism based on?
Stimulus- Response learning
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Who did the Little Albert study?
Watson and Rayner (1920)
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What did Watson and Rayner do in the little albert study?
Conditioned a kid called Albert to fear a white rat.
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Who came up with operant conditioning?
B.F.Skinner
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What is operant conditioning based on?
The idea of positive and negative reinforcement of behaviour and punishment.
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What did Skinner say about the mind?
He dismissed it and regarded the behaving person as an "empty organism" that could be shaped.
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What type of therapy did skinner help develop?
Behaviour modification. A therapeutic technique used by clinicians.
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What caused the Cognitive Revolution?
From the 1970s onwards psychologists became increasingly dissatisfied with the narrowness of behaviourism.
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What do cognitive psychologists claim about the consciousness?
That it could be studied scientifically.
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Name two cognitive psychologists who did experiments.
Alan Baddely and Elizabeth Loftus
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What did Alan Baddeley do?
Formulated some clever experiments which shed light on how STM is structured.
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What did Elizabeth Loftus do?
Created experiments demonstrating the unreliability of memory for past events (implications for eye witness testimony)
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What is Cognitive Neuroscience?
The scientific study of the neural substrates that underlie cognition
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What are common methods used to investigate the brain function in relation to mental processing?
EEG and fMRI
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What is EEG?
Electroencephalography
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What is fMRI
Functional magnetic resonance imaging.
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What are the types of Academic Psychology?

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Biological, Cognitive, Developmental and Social

Card 3

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What is Biological Psychology?

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Card 4

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What is Cognitive Psychology?

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Card 5

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What is Developmental Psychology?

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