Rahe et al Flashcards PY2

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  • Created by: bananaaar
  • Created on: 07-04-14 17:05
Historical context?
In 1960s many believed that life was becoming more stressful. E.g family breakup was on the rise, work was more stressful and more divorces occurred. Psychologists wanted to know if this would lead to a breakdown of immune system thus illness.
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Historical context conclusion?
If so it would be vital to try and reduce people's stress so there are fewer heart attacks etc.
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Academic Context?
Holmes & Rahe (1967) looked at the records of 5,000 patients and created a list of 43 life events that occurred before illness. (method) ... Rahe's 1970 study set out to test the reliability of this apparatus.
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Academic context method?
They then gave this list to ops who gave it a score if it was more or less stress than marriage. These were then weighted and could be used to numerically assess stress.
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Context 3?
Selye's research on rats suggested that stress lead to a breakdown of the immune system which is what Rahe aimed to test with human pps. Rahe aimed to do this prospectively, as opposed to retrospectively in his original test. (ops already ill)
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Aim 1?
To find out whether there is a correlation between a stressful life events and later illness.
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Aim 2?
To complete the study in a prospective way, with a target population that are not already ill.
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Rahe's research method?
Correlation, using questionnaires and medical records.
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Sample?
opportunist sample of 2664 sailors onboard 3 US Navy cruisers.
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Mean age of rage sample?
22.3 They came from a range of backgrounds but were all generally healthy.
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How much of sample was lost?
Less than 10% of original sample - 2684)
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Research 1?
Pps filling in (self-report) a military version of the original SRE (schedule of recent experience) questionnaire every 6 months for 2 years prior to duty on ship.
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Research 2
Pps being given an individual life change unit (LCU) based on the total amount of readjustment needed due to eau stressful life event.
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Research 3
A research doctor going on board the ship after its oversees assignment (2 in vietnam, 1 in Mediterranean) and looking at all sailors health records.
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Research 4?
Repeated visits to the sick bay for the same illness were only counted once.
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Research 5?
A visit was not counted if they thought the sailor was just trying to get out of their work.
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Research 6?
Pps were not aware that their LCU score and illnesses would be correlated nor were the medical officers on board ships (double blind)
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Research 7?
Rahe was interested in what level of LCU score would lead to illness in a generally healthy group of ops, if any.
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Ethical issues addressed by?
Keeping the names of ops confidential so it was not possible to trace an individual sailor.
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Found 1
Most life changes occurred for ops during the last 6 months of the 2 year period.
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Found 2
There was a 0.118 positive correlation between LCU scores in the 6 month period before going to sea, and illness.
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Found 3?
TLCU (total LCU) scored for the entire 2 year pre-cruise period against illness onboard was not found to be significantly different.
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Found 4?
The least stressed sailors (decile 1) had a mean number of illness score of 1.434. The most stressed (decile 10) had a mean number of 2.049 illnesses.
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Found 5?
The correlations between LCU and illnesses were higher for cruiser 1 and 3 than for cruiser 2 - the difference in results for cruiser 2 was caused by increased stress on board which was not accounted for in the TLCU score and so the C was weaker.
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Concluded 1?
If the environment that the ops are in is stressful, previous life events have less effect on illness.
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Concluded 2?
Better reductions can be made for older ops (over 21) and also for enlisted married men, than young single sailors.
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Concluded 3?
There was a low-order positive relationship between pre-cruise life change intensity and reported illnesses at sea.
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Conclusion 4?
The amount of earlier stress and illness experienced by all the sailors was low- if a population with a greater illness variability had been used a stronger relationship may have occurred.
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Reliability?
Strong - double blind procedure, no research bias. Stsnadrdised procedure of same questionnaire so could be repeated/retested. However some aspects could be open to interpretation.
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External validity?
Problematic - real people/sailors so paints true picture. Howver doesn't apply to everyone as its an abnormally confined setting not true to most real life living conditions. Internal validity - ops could lie.
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Sampling?
Problematic - opportunist so not representitive, i.e. not all population are sailors. However all from different backgrounds so no culture bias. However all relatively young (22.3) so age bias.
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Data?
Problematic - lots of quantitative (e.g. 0.118 correlation between LCU scores in 6 month period before going to see and illness. No qualitative data so no depth could be added.
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Ethics?
Problematic - kept ops names confidential but they didn't give consent. However being in the navy gave away their right to privacy due to nature of the job.
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Rahe alternative evidence?
Holmes&Rahe, Selye, DeLongis.
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Alternative evidence 1?
Supported by Holmes&Rahe as they suggested LCU scores greater than 300 mean there is an 80% chance people become ill. Suipports as the sailors did not have high LCU scores and illnesses were only minor.
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Alternative evidence 1 which better.
Rahe 1970 research is improvement as it was prospective this results may be more reliable and less prone to researcher bias/demand characteristics.
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Alternative evidence 2?
Challenged by Selye as he said stress lead to illness via breakdown of immune system. Patially rejects Rahe as even the most stressful cruiser (2) had generally low levels of illness (2.528) suggesting stress does not always break down immune system.
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Alternative evidence 2 which is better?
Rahe is stronger as Sleye used rats, and Rahe used human ops so his findings are more valid to human psychology and more representative of human life.
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Alternative evidence 3?
Delongis challenges as he found not relationship between life events and health, but did find positive correlation between hassles and net day health (+0.59) like colds, headaches etc.
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Altenative Evidence 3 continued?
Partially rejects rage as it suggests that illness is caused by day-to day hassles, not major life events.
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Alternative evidence 3 which is better?
Rahe is better as he had a larger sample of 2664, than Delongis' sample of 75 hence population validity of Rahe was stronger.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Historical context conclusion?

Back

If so it would be vital to try and reduce people's stress so there are fewer heart attacks etc.

Card 3

Front

Academic Context?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Academic context method?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Context 3?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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