PY2 Notes for all Studies

This document contains model answers for all ten studies including: Asch, Milgram, Bennet Levy and Martaeu, Buss, Rahe et al, Loftus and Palmer, Rosenhan, Gibson and Walk, Langer and Rodin And Gardner and Gardner.

HideShow resource information
Preview of PY2 Notes for all Studies

First 394 words of the document:

Psychology Core studies
Solomon Asch (1955)
1) Summarise the aims and context f Asch's (1955)research `opinion and social pressure'
During the Holocaust in WW2 many millions of innocent people worked to death. This was achieved
because hundreds of thousands of other individuals were involved in organising and running
day-to-day business of these camps. It is hard to believe that all of these workers really believed
that what they were doing was right, but the complied with their fellow workers. People who
comply with the behaviour of a larger group are conforming and conformity is a type of social
Conformity: when an individual change their behaviour or beliefs as a result of real or imagined
pressure from a majority.
There are two types of conformity.
1) Informational social influence: when we publicly believe that the majority is right and we
privately think the majority is right.
2) Normative social influence: when we publicly agree with the majority although might
privately disagree.
Solomon Asch wanted to continue research started by Jenness and Mustafa Sherif.
Sherif asked individuals to estimate how far a dot of light moved in a dark room. This is an illusion
called the auto kinetic effect. The participants were then placed in a group of three to estimate the
degree of movement, before giving another individual estimate. Jenness and Sherif found that the
individual estimates had converged establishing a GROUP NORM.
Asch aimed to demonstrate normative social influence. Asch aimed to see whether participants
would conform to an unambiguous situation with a definite and obvious answer. He aimed to find
whether they would deny the evidence of their own eyes and agree with a unanimous majority who
were giving the same incorrect answer to the same question. He also aimed to see whether varying
the size of the majority or having a support from a dissenter would affect the responses from the
naive participants.
2) Outline the procedure of Asch's (1955) research `opinion and social pressure'
Asch conducted laboratory experiments where the majority were stooges gave a unanimous wrong
or correct answer to a simple question. Asch recorded whether naive participants conformed to the
majority or gave an independent answer.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

The naive participants consisted of 123 male volunteers who were student from four American
Universities. The naive participants were placed in a room with between six and eight other stooge
participants. The naive participants were told the study was an experiment on perception and not the
effect of a majority on an individual.
The naive participants were told they will be comparing line length. Each participant took 18 trial
using 18 sets of cards.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

In the variation where the participant has a supporter giving the correct answer the
conformity to the majority decreased to about 9%.
The results show that some individuals are able to remain independent and give their honest answers
in the face of unanimous majority and they are able to resist group pressure. The results also show
that other participants were not able to resist and conformed to the majority even though they knew
the answer was incorrect.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

This means that the study lacks ecological validity and cannot be
generalised to other settings.
× The sample can be criticised because all the participants were male. This means that the
findings cannot be generalised to females who might have different level of conformity. This
is an andocentric sample and is biased because it ignores the females gender.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Rahe (1970)
1) Summarise the aims and context of Rahe's study of life changes and future illnesses
There is a large amount of evidence which suggest that any change whether desirable or undesirable
brings about stress responses. Furthermore evidence suggests that there is an correlation between
a person's life stress, life changes, personal loss and other measurements of social upheaval, with
the subsequent illness in that individual; they later become ill.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Vietnam and the other was in the Mediterranean sea. Participants
were required to fill in the military version of the schedule of recent experience (SRE). This is a self
administered questionnaire that documents significant changes in a person's life relating to:
family/community/social /occupational and health experiences over the last two years. It was filled in
to show life changes that had occurred in each of the four 6 month's periods in the two years.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

This table shows that the higher the LCU band the higher the mean illness rating.
The relationships between the LCU and the mean illness rates were strongest in the two ships with
the easiest missions. It is possible that the higher current stress levels on the other ship hid the effect
of life changes.
These findings suggest that higher LCUs relating to the six months before departure are associated
with higher illness rates on board ship.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

sample is known as ethnocentric.
× Another weakness of this study is ethical issues. The participants knew that they filled in the
SRE but not aware that their illness records were going to be used. Therefore the
participants did not give informed consent for their health to be monitored.
× This is a correlational study which does not prove cause and effect. A correlation only tells us
that there is a relationship between two variables it does not prove cause and effect.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Milgram (1963) Behavioural study of obedience
1) Summarise the aims and context of Milgrams study of obedience
Milgram's works stemmed from Nazi atrocities during WW2. It was believed that Hitler was evil but
he relied on millions of people to carry out the `the final solutions'.
During the holocaust, 11 millions lives were lost due to racial prejudice. `The final solution' was a plan
to get rid of all the Jews.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

He wanted to take his study to Germany but
there was no need because his America study proved the hypothesis wrong.
Milgrams main aim was to find out if ordinary people would obey authoritative figure (a researcher in
a grey lab coat) in a situational context even when requested to injure another person. The research
was inspired by WW2 Nazi's crimes and those who obeyed them.…read more



Hey, do you know up to what grade/marks these model answers would get? Amazing work, especially for revision notes, thank you so much.. :)

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »