PSYB3 Substance Abuse

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Personality factors - Flory et al
Extroverted personality types can explain substance abuse. Individual will be outgoing, easily bored and social
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Personality factors - McAdams
Low conscientiousness is associated with substance abuse. Individual will be unreliable, disorganised and careless.
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Personality factors - Antisocial personality disorder
some links but cannot establish cause and effect. Abuse rate is higher than APD rate
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Social Factors - social selection
Rowntree - young people actively choose to be in sub culture associated with substances
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Social Factors - Peer Influence
Individual may feel pressured to maintian or further social status by engaging in substance abuse. Form of social conformity vary depending on self esteem.
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Social Factors - Gardner and Stein
longitudinal study recording forms of peer pressure in 18yo's life. Found encouragement is main peer influence.
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Social Factors - Observation
SLT main explnation. If observer sees model being rewarded for engaging in substance abuse they will likely recreate
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Bio Factors - Adoption studies
Goldstein - adoptees who abuse alcohol typically had biological parents who abused alochol. supported by peters and preedy study.
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Bio Factors - Genetics
Melo - bred alcohol inclined mice with other alcohol inclined mice and their offspring showed signs of alcoholism
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Bio Factors - Twin studies
kaij - found alcohol abuse concordance rates were 58% for monozygotic and 28% dizyogotic twins
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Bio Factors - Gene Mapping
recent research, still no link between specific gene and substance abuse
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Solvent Abuse info
Widely used everyday products. Most common in teenagers. Creates feelings similar to alcohol.
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Tobacco/Nicotine info
Mild stimulant, absorbed into blood quickly, highly addivctive.
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Alcohol info
Form of relaxation, creates physical and psychological dependence. Most commonly used drug
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Alcohol - Winger Withdrawal stage 1
sweating, shaking, anxeity and nausea
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Alcohol - Winger withdrawal stage 2
seizures and convusions
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Alcohol - Winger withdrawal stage 3
hallucinations and fevers
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Stimulants effects
arouses physiological senses, results in feelings of euphoria
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Stimulant examples
anphetamines, MDMA, Cocain, Alkyl Nitrates
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Depressants effects
slows activity of central nervous system
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Depressant examples
heroin (opiates), ketamine (tranquiliser), bensodiazepines (sleeping tablets)
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Depressants study - Bourne
veitnam soldiers engaging in heroin abuse MOST were able to stop taking the drug post war when immediate stress was absent
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Forms of Self Management
self help groups and community based programmes
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Forms of aversion therapy
rapid smoking (drag on cigarette every 6 seconds) , sensation therapy (thinking of unpleasant things while using substance), contingency training (rewarding cocain abusers when uring sample was clear)
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Social Innoculation definition
programmes designed to change peoples attitudes and make individuals more resiliant to persuasion
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Social Innoculation - Flay et al
4 key parts to innoculation. 1) knowledge (giving facts about health/social/economic consequenses) 2) Discussion of effects 3) skills (argument) development 4) public committment
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Fear Arousal key content
who the message is from, what the message says and what audience the ad is aimed at
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Fear arousal ad by celebrity
creates more trust in message
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fear arousal audience factors
high self esteem audience may become ego-defensive if message is too threatening (baumeister et al) this would reinforce the indivduals behaviour even further.
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Fear arousal - Janis et Al
found that high fear arousal lecture provoked more anxeity but least chance. Low fear arousal lecture provoked more change
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Risk groups - Cultural Factors
some ethinc groups are more likely to engage in substance abuse than others
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Risk groups - Psychosical factors
looks at employment, family relations, support level, housing situation ect
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Risk groups - Biological Factors
looks at families history with substances
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RIsk groups - Drummond
50% of people identified with having an abuse problem at an A&E showed up to a help group the following day
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health promotion factors
1) interpersonal factors (social factors) 2) individual factors (habits) 3) community factors (comminuty morals)
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health promotion form 1
information giving
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health promition form 2
information to motivate
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health promoition form 3
motivational interviewing - one to one talks about motives
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health promition form 3
behavioural techniques - changing unhealthy behaviours
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Prochaska Model
precontemplation---contemplation---preparation---action(1+ day)---(possble repeat)---maintenence (6+ months)---termination
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Card 2

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Low conscientiousness is associated with substance abuse. Individual will be unreliable, disorganised and careless.

Back

Personality factors - McAdams

Card 3

Front

some links but cannot establish cause and effect. Abuse rate is higher than APD rate

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Rowntree - young people actively choose to be in sub culture associated with substances

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Individual may feel pressured to maintian or further social status by engaging in substance abuse. Form of social conformity vary depending on self esteem.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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