Face Recognition - Feature Analysis Evaluation
- Some empirical evidence to show that features are used in the process of face recognition.
- Neglects importance of other information for recognition.
- Studies show single facial features are not easily recognised.
- Doen't explain why altering face configuration affects recognition.
- Shepherd Davies & Ellis Study conclusion - different features.
Comparison with Holistic Theory
- Holistic form theory suggests that the whole face is involved in face recognition.
- Important factors:
- Configuration of the face
- Relationship between features
- Feelings Aroused by the face
- Semantic information
- Lack of info on unfamiliar faces unlike Feature analysis
Face Recognition - Holistic Theory Evaluation.
- Evidence from diary studies and lab studies - supports Bruce & Young model.
- Takes into account that face recognition is complex and involves emotion & semantic info.
- Can predict and explain every day observations - e.g. recognising someone and not knowing their name.
- Doesn't explain why Prosopagnosia patients can have unconscious recall.
- Lack of information about recognition of unfamiliar faces.
- Study Conclusion - halves of celeb faces.
Comparison with Feature Analysis
- Feature analysis theory states features are most important in recognition.
- Gives info on unfamiliar faces - recognised by external features e.g hair.
Composite Systems Evaluation.
- Feature demarcation lines interfere with recognition.
- Insufficient features available - 855
- When with distracter faces only identified 12.5% of the time.
- Feature Analysis theory
- No significant difference found between Photo-Fit or E-Fit - DAVIES.
- Artistic elaboration was not allowed so can't be generalised to real life.
- Feature Analysis Theory
- Produced to fit in with Holistic theory.
- Allows a composite to evolve from whole faces - not constructed.
Line - Up Procedure Evaluations.
- More chance of someone chosen BUT more chance of false identification.
- Less chance someone will be chosen BUT less chance of false identification.
- Absolute judgements not relative
- Procedural variables controlled.
- Less chance of demand characteristics
- Availability of large number of foils.
- very few line-ups cancelled.
Factors Affecting EWT Evaluation.
Use of Q's & Post-Event Contamination.
- Memories for events changed by words used in questions and witness discussion.
- Where misleading info is obviously incorrect it has no effect.
- Less crucial details more easily distorted - e.g. item stolen more easily distorted than appearance of Robber.
- Clifford & Scott Study - people who saw most violent film recalled less.
- Vancouver - Weapon focus had no effect.
- Vancouver - Leading Questions had no effect.
- Vancouver - even though emotional still well remembered.
- Real-life - has Eco Validity.
Cognitive Interview Evaluation
- Study conclusion - Cognitive interview better than hypnotised and standard.
- Improves Recall in many circumstances.
- Reduces the amount of post-event contamination.
- Increase in wrong information however.
- Officers must be specially trained to carry out the interview.
- Increases recall of peripheral detail not central.
- Attempts to provide as similar context as possible between encoding and retrieval. (CONTEXT & EVERY DETAIL)
- Second two points are an attempt to retrieve info from different routes.
(PERSPECTIVES & ORDER)
Flashbulb Memory Evaluation.
- May or may not be a special type of memory.
- Amygdale implicated in flashbulb memories.
- Been found to be resistant to forgetting.
- May be due to repeated retrieval rather than special properties.
- Better remembered if personal - MLK/JFK study.
- Neisser - SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER
False Memory Debate Evaluations.
- Levinger & Clark Study Conclusion - Negative Words
- Williams study - interviewing abused women.
- Repression is unconscious so cant be studied empirically.
- Flashbulb memory - more traumatic events better remembered.
- If we accept memories can be repressed how do we know they're recovered accurately?
- Loftus and Ketcham Study - Small Sample
- Ethical issue - making children believe a bad event happened to them.
- Validity of generalising to real life cases of abuse.
Theoretical and Ethical Implications of the Debate
- If lost memories can be recovered it would be consistent with Freud's repression theory.
- If such memories are false it is consistent with the reconstructive nature of memory.
- Someone may be wrongly accused
- Family may be split up
- Individual may be more unhappy after the memory is recovered so more therapy will be needed.
- Therapists may be tempted to let their own beliefs influence interpretation.
Children as Eyewitnesses Evaluation.
Study Evaluation - Staged Theft
- High level of deception
- Could have caused stress to the participants.
- Field investigation - increased Eco Validity.
- Children may have felt pressured into giving answers.
- Some evidence shows children's memories can be remarkably accurate.
- Fivush and Shukat - young children can give accurate recall even after long period of time.
- Lab studies - emotionally positive events but not in court.
- Children not overly encouraged to recall.
- Leading questions not used - may be used in court.