Nature - Nurture Debate in Gender.

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Nature
Gender related behaviour is innate; controlled by our biology; Sex and Gender are interlinked and natural we can do nothing about it.
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Nurture
Gender is a learned process through socialisation; Can explain cultural variations in gender related behaviour.
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Studies supporting Nature
Batista Boys - Imperato-McGinley (1979) Buss (1994)
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Studies supporting Nurture
Baby X - Katz and Zalk (1975) Furnham and Farragher (2000)
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Cross Cultural Research
If behaviour is found to be similar across cultures NATURE if behaviour is found to be different across cultures NURTURE
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Buss (1994) NATURE
Supports the theory that males and females seek different characteristics in potential mates. For men good looks and youth are indicators of fertility and ability to care for a baby.
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Evaluation of Buss (1994)
However the Nature argument cannot explain changing gender roles in western society.
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Mead (1935)
High in researcher bias - Mead had strong beliefs that the environment was the most important influence and therefore ignored any data that did not fit her theory
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Overall Evaluation
Danger of Parachute Research - Often conclusions drawn reflect white western stereotypes rather than the actual behaviour. However Cross cultural research can lead to a greater understanding of cultural diversity.
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The Psychodynamic approach to gender.
Gender develops in the Phallic stage (5yrs) Freud believed children in the oral and anal stage were bisexual , no gender identity existed.
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Oedipus complex.
Fearing castration from the father, the boy resolves the conflict the boy gives up the love for his mother and identifies with his father. Through the process of identification, the boy adopts the fathers male identity & assumes male characteristics
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Electra Complex
The girls penis envy is converted to the want for a baby (penis baby project) Through the process of identification the girl identifies with her mother and assumes the female role and characteristics.
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Karen Horney
She states penis envy is really a desire for the power and control that males possess in society.
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Nancy Chodorow
Gender identity is based on early mother-child relationships. Mothers identify more strongly with daughters than sons encouraging greater closeness with daughters as a result male children are encouraged to be separate.
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Card 2

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Gender is a learned process through socialisation; Can explain cultural variations in gender related behaviour.

Back

Nurture

Card 3

Front

Batista Boys - Imperato-McGinley (1979) Buss (1994)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Baby X - Katz and Zalk (1975) Furnham and Farragher (2000)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

If behaviour is found to be similar across cultures NATURE if behaviour is found to be different across cultures NURTURE

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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