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Gender Development
Gender Concepts
Sex and Gender:
Sex: the biological fact of being male or female. This may refer to chromosomal sex (XX or XY), gonadal sex (the possession of ovaries or
testes) and/or genital sex (the possession of a vagina or a penis)
Gender: the social, psychological, behavioural and…

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Universal Features: (found everywhere) would suggest an innate basis for gender and support a nature view
Culturally specific features: (found in some places and not others) would suggest that gender is learned and support the nurture view

Approach Nature or Explanation Evidence that Evidence that contradicts
Nurture supports view
Biological…

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C: there were culturally specific features in all tribes suggesting that nurture has a bigger impact on gender, however the one
universally specific feature that men go to war, suggest that nature still has an influence

Malinowski:
A: to
M: he observed the Trobiand Islanders.
R: in documenting their sexual…

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Cognitive Gender Schema: Stage1: child learns what things are associated with each sex
Stage 2: Child begins to make links between different
components of the schema, so that knowing what someone
likes to play with will allow the child to predict what other
things about them. For example, someone who…

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The phallic stage is where pleasure is gained from the genital
area of the body. The most important aspect of the phallic
stage is the Oedipus complex/ Electra complex. Fixation at
this stage may result in an adult always looking to find a
mother/ father figure in their relationships or…

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Psychodynamic defence mechanisms:
Defence Description Example
mechanism
Reaction Behaving in ways directly opposite to unconscious feelings or Behaving in a friendly way to someone you
formation impulses dislike
Displacement Transferring impulses and feelings to an originally neutral or innocent Scapegoating where a social group is
target wrongly blamed
Projection Attributing…

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