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  • Created by: katvaux
  • Created on: 01-04-15 12:32
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  • Nature/Nurture
    • nature debate (Buss 1994)
    • cultural variations (Mead 1935)
    • nurture debate/ sex role stereotyping (Furnham + Farragher 2000) (Fagot 1978)
      • F + F 2000
        • Aim: to investigate the use of sex role stereotyping in advertising
        • Method: over 200 adverts analysed according to the sex of the central figure and coded (rated) by a m/f researcher.
        • Results: men tended to be used in autonomous, physical roles or power positions + women in familial or domestic roles
        • Con: SRS reinforced through advertising and yet males voice overs used as they were deemed to have more authority.
        • Eval: research/ viewer interpretation + method issues.
      • Fagot 1978
        • Aim: to investigate parental reinforcement of gender dev and the effect of this in gender role dev.
        • Method: 2 researchers observed 24 families, half with young sons and half with young daughters for 5 separate 1-hour periods.
        • Results: positive reaction if childrn behaved in a gender appropriate way and negative if not.
        • Eval: observer effect could change results, in 70's so could be outdated (attitudes have changed)
    • Bem 1974
      • 50 male and female judges were used to compile a list of 20 masc/fem. traits.
        • this formed the BSRI - a way of measuring a persons androgyny.
        • was later compared to the students own descriptors of their gender - was validated.
        • findings were as expected: males scored high masc traits and females high fem traits.
      • 1000 students then took the inventory and rated themselves (true of them or not 1-7) and then given an overall masc and fem score.
        • sign. number showed androgyny - concluded  they were more psychol/lly healthy.
        • good test-retest reliability
        • hard to generalise because of lack of validity and traits were decided in 70's
    • 3 types of gender
      • androgyny , masculine + feminine
    • sex + gender
    • sex vs gender (Imperato + McGinley)
      • sex is fixed: its internal, m/f are physically different, hormones and chromosome are different
      • individuals can change their gender identity.
      • Domin. Rep. - a hormone deficiency led 18 males to appear as females as birth.
        • they were therefore raised as girls.
        • at puberty their hormones changed and caused them to develop male genitals.
        • most adapted masc gender role and identity.
        • very small case study, culturally specific and a retrospective accout which mean they could have lied about things.
        • sex and gender are distinct from each other and gender is flexible
    • gender: nature/nurture (Diamond + Sigmundson 1997)


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