MODULE 3: How effectively did Hitler consolidate Nazi authority 1933-45? PART 2

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Why did the Enabling Act get brought into action?
•Hitler exploited the Reichstag fire to issue decree for 'Protection for People and State'
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What did the decree for the 'Protection for People and State' mean?
permitted the restriction of the right to assembly, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press, among other rights, and it removed all restraints on police investigations
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What opposition was there to the Enabling Act?
•only the SPD voted against it at the Opera House •
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What did the Enabling Act enable?
•effectively did away with parliamentary procedure & legislation •transferred full powers to Chancellor & his government for 4 years
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How important was the Enabling Act in establishing Hitler's power in 1933 and for whom?
•crucial for Hitler •removed any doubts civil service or judiciary had as to legality of Nazi takeover •greatly strengthened Hitler's position in the cabinet •proof Hitler & Nazis had power to make other parties cooperate
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What was Gleichschaltung?
•"Bringing into line" / co-ordination •degeneration of Weimar's democracy into Nazi state •Nazifying of German society & structures- refers to establishment of dictatorship •controlled cultural, economical & social life •creating a one-party Reich
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How important was Gleichschaltung in establishing Hitler's power in 1933 and for whom?
•all parties, trade unions & associations were abolished or taken over by Nazis •all other political parties were banned •eliminated opposition •made mass indoctrination possible •However bureaucratic, military & big business were still intact
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Why were the SA a threat to the consolidation of Nazi power in 1933-34?
•Hitler required support of elites to become Chancellor • the generals could block Hitler's ambitions to succeed Hindenburg •Rohm wanted to turn SA into basis for new mass Nazi army which threatened army & role they played •SA had significant power
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What position did the Trade Unions hold before Gleichschaltung?
•mass membership & strong connections with socialism & Catholicism→ powerful •successfully ended right-wing Putsch in 1920 • May 1933→ spent force
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How did Gleichschaltung link with the federal states?
•March 1933- regional parliaments dissolved & reformed with acceptable majorities •April 1933- created Reich governors •"power and responsibilities are shared between national and regional governments"
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How did Gleichschaltung link with Trade Unions?
•short term hope: continue to serve social role to help members •long term hope:provide framework for development in post-Nazi era •independent trade unions were banned, offices were occupied & leaders were sent to camps •DAF
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How did Gleichschaltung link with Political Parties?
•after destruction of Trade Unions, assets of SDP were seized & they were banned •June 1933: major remaining parties agreed to dissolve themselves •July 14 1933- decree that formally proclaimed Nazi Party= only legal party in Germany→ no opposition
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Was Gleichschaltung a success?
+End of 1933= well advanced in many areas of public life in Germany -failed to make impression on role & influence of Church, army & big business -only partially coordinated civil service & education
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How important were the SA and terror in establishing Hitler's power in 1933 and for whom?
•they strengthened the Nazis •they threatened parties & forced cooperation with the Nazis •they were an 'embarrassing legacy of years of struggle •threatened regular army •Hitler had to control them to maintain army's support
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How did Hitler win over the Centre Party to gain the necessary majority?
•persuasion •reassurance •strong organisation •threats e.g. not being "beaten up and thrown out" if they cooperated •bullying: "masses of people", "armed SA and SS men" "crawling the "Kroll Opera House"
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What is a brief summary of the Reichstag fire, 27 Feb 1933?
•Reichstag building was set on fire •Van der Lubbe (young Dutch Communist) was arrested •28 Feb- Frick drew up & Hitler signed 'Decree for the Protection of People and the State'
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What is a brief summary of the Reichstag election, 5 March 1933?
•violence & terror dominated meetings •Nazis used atmosphere of fear & hate to great effect •Hitler blamed democratic government & Communists & played on desires of many Germans
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What position did the Political Parties hold before Gleichschaltung?
•Nazism openly rejected existence of other political parties •Nazis aspired to establish authoritarian rule within a one-party state •Communists had been banned since the Reichstag Fire
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What position did the federal states hold before Gleichschaltung?
•strong tradition of largely self-governing federal states •contrasted Nazi desires to create a fully unified country •
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What did the DAF mean?
•it was the German Labour Front •instrument of control •didn't represent workers' interests •workers lost rights to negotiate wages & conditions of work
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What is a summary of the Night of the Long Knives?
•April 1934: Hitler & 2 leading generals agreed position against Rohm & SA •Papen made speech calling for end to SA excesses & criticised policy of coordination •30 June 1934: Rohm & SA leaders shot, army provided weapons & transport, 200 murdered
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What is the significance of the Night of the Long Knives?
•Hitler overcame radical Left in his own party & conservative Right of traditional Germany •German army aligned itself behind Nazi regime •German soldiers took personal at of loyalty to Hitler •Hitler secured own personal political supremacy
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What was the response of the SA to Hitler turning Germany into a one-party dictatorship?
•they won political battles on the streets •Rohm openly called for a genuine 'National Socialist Revolution' •Rohm wanted to amalgamate the German army & the SA
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Why was there a power struggle between the SA and the army?
•Rohm- Hitler's oldest political friend •SA was larger than army with 3 million committed Nazis •SA fought for Hitler in Munich Putsch & Battle of the Streets •army could unseat Hitler •army's military skills> essential to Hitler's success of foreign poli
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Card 2

Front

What did the decree for the 'Protection for People and State' mean?

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permitted the restriction of the right to assembly, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press, among other rights, and it removed all restraints on police investigations

Card 3

Front

What opposition was there to the Enabling Act?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did the Enabling Act enable?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How important was the Enabling Act in establishing Hitler's power in 1933 and for whom?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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