Key Question 1 - How effectively did Hitler establish and control Nazi authority?

Detailed notes on Key Question 1 of the course Dictatorship and Democracy in Germany 1933-63

Shorter version here: http://getrevising.co.uk/account/resources/kq1_revision_notes_to_what_extent_did_the_nazis_transform_german_society

Specifically for AS OCR History A Unit F964 Option B

Study Topic 4: Dictatorship and Democracy in Germany 1933–63

[Sepcification for my course on pg 63 of:http://www.ocr.org.uk/download/kd/ocr_9582_kd_gce_spec.pdf]

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Preview of Key Question 1 - How effectively did Hitler establish and control Nazi authority?

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How effectively did Hitler establish and
consolidate Nazi authority 193345?
The aims of the Nazis
N azi
Par
ty:
ND AS P (
N a t
ional
S o cial
is
t G erman
Wo rker
s'
P art
y).
T her
e were
thr
e e e sse nt
ial
ai
ms for
the Na zi
s est
a bl
is
h ed
by Hitl
e r
:
1. Destroy the power of Jews and Communists and subject `inferior' races to the Aryans
­w anted
toe
s t
ablishw h at
hes a w ast
h e`
natural
'
o r
der of
thi
n gs. Hi
tl
e r hada
d o pt
edp
r ejud i
c esa
g ainst
Jewish
peopled
u ri
ngh isy
earsi nV i
en naa
n db
e causeh
ew a sw a ryt
ha t
theyd
i d n'
t
app ea r
tol
i
vei
na nyc
o unt
ry
­h
eb
e liev edi nh
a v i
n gas
t rongn a ti
onal i
denti
tya
n dn a ti
on­s
a w th e m asg o inga g ai
n st
the`
ri
ght'
order.H
e also bel
iev e d them t
o be e asi
ly
i
de nt
if
ia bl
e ­ mo re co mp arable t
o Aryans.H
e saw
C ommu n ism a s
a di
s ea s e
sprea di
n g
across nat
ional
bo undaries as w el
l. B eli
eved
in `
S o ci
al
D ar
w i
nism'.
2. Overthrow Versailles ­s a w thi
sa sh
a vingh
u mil
iatedG
e rma n y(
H i
tl
e r hi
ms elf
ha dd
e scri
b edWWI
as
oneo
f t
h eb e st
opp ortu ni
ti
eso
f hi
sl
i
fe)
­f el
t Germa n yh
a dw
r ong l
yb
e enma
d es
u bor
dinatet
oo
t her
countr
ies .
3. Rebuild Germany by uniting all German people and expanding `lebensraum' ­w an t
edt
or ebui
ld
G er
ma ny 'sa
r mya n de
c onomya n dma
k et
hem t
h emo
s t pow erf
u l
int
hew
o r l
db
yp r omo t
ingG
e rma n
nati
onal
in terests above those of
o t
h er
s ­
`Ein
R ei
ch,
E i
n Vol
k '
.
N azi
sm wasn'
tj
u sta
seto
fp
o l
it
icali
d eas­i
tw asaw
a yo
fl
ife/a t
ti
tud e.P
o l
it
icall
yt
h eN a zi
P art
yw
a s
a ut
hori
tar
ian.
Hi
tl
er
out
li
ned
the
N azi
s'
i
deol
ogy
in
his
1925
book,
Mei
n Kampf
(
My
Str
uggl
e).
The
N azi
s devi
sed
a 25
poi
nt
progr
amme
­ of
t
hese
poi
nts
22
w er
e nat
ional
is
t and
onl
y 3
w er
e s
o ci
ali
st.
The Nazis' admission to power in 1933
The Wall Street Crash
General
elect
ion
in
19 28
­ Nazis
w on
on l
y 2.
6% of
the
vote.
Oct
o ber
­ Wa l
l
Str
e et
Crash econ omic
cri
sis
­ USA cal
led
in
loans.
I
ncreasedu
n emp l
oyme nt
­p eopl
ec an't
aff
ordf
ood­p
e oplel
ookf
or
mo r
er
adical
sol
uti
ont
oprobl
ems
i
ncreased support
f
or
extremist
part
ies
(Nazis/
C ommunist
s).
Sept
e mbe r
1930 ­
gain
18.3% of
the vot
e
­ German Commu nist
Part
y gai
n 13.
1%.
Rei
chs t
ag­C
h ancell
orB
r üni
ngb
e gant
ob ypassi
t (
mo reC
o mmu ni
sts/
N azi
s)
a ndo
rder
emergency
decr
ee s.
Soci
al
u nr
est
g r
ew
­ conf
li
ct
betwee n
N azi
s and
C ommun i
sts.
Hi
tl
er pr
o mised
to
solve
peo pl
e's
problems.
Propaganda
Presi
dent
ial
campai
gn
in
1932
­ Hi
tl
er
once
spoke
at
21
meet
ings
in
one
w eek.

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Page 2

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Ral
li
es/canvassi
ng ­
eff
ect
ive
in
gaini
ng suppor
t.
BUTe
v eni
np
la cesw
it
hout
N azi
pr
o paganda,
t
hev
ot
es
ti
l
l
incr
eased­p
eopl
ew
ant
edc
hange­n
ot
one
of
t
he major
f
a ct
ors
in
accessi
on t
o power.
Change
Hi
tl
e r
pr
o mised
change ­
h at
ed We i
ma r
democr
acy.…read more

Page 3

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Consolidation of Power
The Nazi `Legal Revolution' (JanuaryMarch 1933)
Hitler's position as Chancellor was weak:
O nly
two oth er
N azi
s i
n
the
1 2
ma n ca bi
n et
­ Fri
ck and G oer
ing.…read more

Page 4

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Reichst
agme
t
on2
3
Ma rcht
oc
onsider
Enabli
ngA
c t
­C ommu ni
st
sr
ef
useda dmit
tancea
n dd
epu t
ies
f
aced SA i
nti
midat
ion.…read more

Page 5

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Becoming Führer
th
6
Jul
y1
9 3 3­H
i t
ler
(i
nas
p eech) decl
areda
ne n dt
ot
heN
a zi
`
revoluti
on'
­s ai
di
tw oul
db es treame di
n t
o
`
e v ol
uti
on'.…read more

Page 6

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Hitler and Government
Hitler's Role
Th eore t
icall
y i
tw asu
n l
imit
e d­o
n ep
a r
tys
t at
ea
n dH
i t
lerw
a su
n disputedl
ead er
.C
o nsti
tuti
onall
y­H
i t
ler
comma n der
in
chief
of
the armed
servi
ces.
Führer power:
H i
tl
e r
's
persona l
contr
ol
­ mo r
e than
just
legal
.…read more

Page 7

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Page 8

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N omo
r et
h an1
4 ,
000a
g entsf
or
thew
h ol
eo
f
G ermany­l
ar
gec
it
i
e s(
e.
g.
Frankf
urt
,
populat
ion
500,
00 0)
pol
iced by
just
4050 agent
s.
G estapow
o rkma
i nl
yp
r omptedb
yp u bl
ici
nf
orme r
s­c
a usedmo
reb
yg ossi
pa ndt
her
ew
a s
much paperwork f
or
li
tt
le
ret
urn.…read more

Page 9

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Assassination Attempts
Ther
e w ere
nu merous pl
ans by gr
ou ps/
indi
vidual
s t
o
assassinat
e H i
tl
er,
i
n part
icul
ar af
ter
1939 .
Some o f
t
he best
do cumented were:
1 9 35 6
­ Jewish
students
p l
anned
to
assassinat
e
H i
tl
er,
wit
h no r
e sul
t
due
to
lack
of oppor
tunit
y.…read more

Page 10

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I
nit
ial
cooper
ati
o n.
Lat
er r
elat
ions
broke down af
ter
concerns over
Hit
ler
's
radi
ca l
f
orei
gn poli
cy.
General
Beck ­
plan
to ar
rest
H i
tl
er
in
1938
­ r
uined by
H i
tl
er'
s success
at
the Munich
conf
erence.
Off
icer
s i
nvolved
in
fai
led
assassinati
on at
temp t
s,
part
icul
arly
in
July
1944
Bomb Pl
ot.…read more

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