KQ1 Revision Notes: How effectively did Hitler establish and consolidate Nazi authority 1933-45?

Revision Notes on Key Question 1 of the course Dictatorship and Democracy in Germany 1933-63

Specifically for AS OCR History A Unit F964 Option B

Study Topic 4: Dictatorship and Democracy in Germany 1933–63

[Sepcification for my course on pg 63 of:http://www.ocr.org.uk/download/kd/ocr_9582_kd_gce_spec.pdf]

Thanks to this member whose notes helped me: http://getrevising.co.uk/resources/ocr_germany_1933_63_kq_1

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  • Created by: Flo
  • Created on: 06-04-11 13:29

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How effectively did Hitler establish and
consolidate Nazi authority 1933-45?
Aims of the Nazis

Racial Purity
Establish the `natural order' of things by destroying the power of Jews and Communists.
Believed in `Social Darwinism', i.e. survival of the fittest, applied to the Aryan race.
The superior race were called the…

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Consolidation of Power

Legal Revolution

Situation in 1933:
Weaknesses: Hitler's position as Chancellor in January 1933 was weak ­ the coalition didn't have a majority,
his post was dependent on Hindenburg and he would need to satisfy Trade Unions/the Army ­ couldn't pass
radical legislation.
Strengths: Hitler was the leader…

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Hitler promised the Catholic Centre Party that he would not interfere with the
Catholic Church and in return they voted for the enabling act
Only SPD (Social Democrats) voted against
Passed by 444 votes to 94
Act stated that Parliamentary process/legislation would be removed to give full
power to the…

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They were disappointed by their lack of personal gain from the rise to power despite constant political
help ­ worried they would become a propaganda tool and nothing more.
Strengths of the Army:
Felt threatened by SA.
Could potentially depose Hitler.
Rivalry with SA ­ much more professional/disciplined.
Better equipped…

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The Dual State

Two forms of government at work at the same time ­ Nazi party and pre-1933 organisations. Developed due to
Hitler's ambiguity over whether party or state controlled government:
Needed to persuade conservatives he wasn't revolutionary
Efficiency of the German state
Need to link the Nazi party with…

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1935 Only Aryans could join the SS.
1936 All police powers belonged to Himmler as `Reichsführer SS and Chief of all German Police'
1938 Waffen SS had 14,000 soldiers in 3 units.
1939 Security organisations brought together under the RSHA (Reich Security Office) under Himmler and his
deputy, Heydrich.

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1935-6 Jewish students planned to assassinate Hitler. Failed due to lack of opportunity.
1938 A man tried to shoot Hitler at the annual Munich parade. Executed in 1941.
1939 Assassination plots increased from this point.
Georg Elser planted a bomb in the beer-hall where Hitler was…

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12-18 year old boys with no distinctive political ideology.
Had long hair, wore different clothes, left/never joined the Hitler Youth.
Operated in small local groups and did activities that would normally be done in the HJ ­ fought with Hitler
Anti-Nazi leaflets.
Leaders were placed under surveillance and in…

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Formed underground cells (even in the DAF) e.g. the Red Orchestra (spy network which successfully
permeated government and military) but two thirds of members were arrested.
Rote Kapelle spy organisation sent information to the USSR ­ smashed in 1942 by the Abwehr.
Activists drawn away to fight in the…


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