geography skills

aim of a line graph
show changes over time at a series of data points connected by straight lines
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strengths of a line graph
easy to read and interpret // shows specific values // can predict future results //
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disadvantages of a line graph
can only be used to show data over time // have to use consistent scale on axis
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aim of a bar graph
visually represent data that is categorized
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strengths of a bar graph
east to read and interpret // easy to construct // can compare categories
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disadvantages of a bar graph
can only be used for discrete data //
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aim of a chloropleth map
the show how something varies between different areas using colours or patterns
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advantages of a choropleth map
easy to read as it is visually effective // general anomolies can be identified
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disadvantages ofchoropleth maps
gives false impressions with abrubt changes at boundaries // variations within an area are hidden // exact figures arent shown
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aims of a dot map
to show distribution of something across an area
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advantages of a dot map
can represent a large range of items // easy to interpret and analyse
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disadvantages of dot maps
can be uncler if dots are overcrowded // does not represent small countries i.e. same number of dots in a small country to large looks very different
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aim of flow lines
movement of a variable from one area to another
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advantages of fow lines
width of line is proportional to value // visual
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disadvantages of flow lines
hard to draw // doesnt say why // overcrowded
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aim of proportional bars and squares
to show the proportion of the variable by the size of the bar
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advantages of proportional bars and squares
easy to read and interpret //
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disadvantages of proportional bars and squares
doesnt say why // overcrowded in small areas
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aim of proportional circles
to show the proportion of a vaiable by the size of the circle
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strengths of proportional circles
easy to interpret and read // represent a large range of data
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disadvantages of proportional circles
difficult to produce / not accurate // overlaps can occur so confusing
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aim of sketch maps
a drawing/ sketch of an area to show key features using annotations and keys
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advantages of sketch mps
shows main features of an area // used when finding sample areas // good annotations give specifics
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disadvantages of sketch maps
may not be an accurate representation // needs to be correctly annotated in detail to be usefull // only shows 1 view and 1 point in time
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aims of an ordinance survey map
a map which shows all parts of an area such as roads building and trees using symbols
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advantages of ordinance survey maps
allows you to find specific features on a large map using grid references // also shows altitude
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disadvantages of ordinance survey maps
areas may be changed and so are not accurate in the map // errors made when reading the map may be tiny but in real life its a lot bigger
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aims of weather maps
a map displaying various meteorological features across an area using symbols
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advantages of weather mpas
helps plan geographical fieldwork / help predict natural disasters
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disadvantages of weather maps
weather is unpredictable and can change easily // it is a statistical analysis so it is never deterministic
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aims of an isoline maps
lines drawn on a map to show areas that share a common value and a gradual change in an area
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advantage of an isoline map
shows gradual change not abrupt // can see areas of equal value // can see clear boundaries in an area
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advantages of man whitney
states whether the difference is significant or due to chance // use data sets of different sizes // good at dealing with skewed data
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disadvantages of man whitney
lengthy calculations mean prone to human error // does not explain why there is a difference
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advantages of chi-squared
states whether there is an association or it occured by chance // good to use on data that is put in catagories
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disadvantages of chi-squared
does not say why they are associated // liable to researcher bias as catagories are chosen by them
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advantages of spearmans rank
can show positive and negative correlation // used with raw data
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disadvantages of spearmans rank
needs at least ten sites to be accurate
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explain how and why you selected the topic for your fieldwork investigation
easily accessible (A169) / lot of change in a small distance / national park little human interference
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justify one method used to collect data in your investigation
flow vane= 4 sites equally distributed so we could see rate of change (BM) / did the centre left and right to get an average / did the same at every site
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in light of your investigation suggest how your investingation could be developed
compare to another river / compare to a different course of the river / do in a different season to see effects of weather / closer sites to get more accurate results
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assess the usefullness of one method of data presentation you used
cross sectional diagram= easy to read / compares both depth and width / easy to compare between sites / results could be skewedby rocks / confsing due to different scales on each axis
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choses one method of data analysis that you used and why you used it
spearmans rank= tells us if the relationship is significant of velocity / our result was 7.3 which is significant at the 99% level / says if its positive or negative
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assess the implications of your conclusions for geographers
outliers show that rivers dont always change like a texbook / other school groups can use it as secondary data / north yorkshire park might use it / other geographers form new hypothesis based on it
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risks and how to manage them during the investigation
speared by a ranging pole- carry face down / drowning in the river- upper course in small groups / slip or fall - suitable footwear and check the weather / hypothermia and cold- check weather and suita\ble clothing
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aim of a scatter graph
displays plotted values of 2 variable with a line of best fit to show average
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advantages of scatter graph
shows a correlation between 2 variable // can be continuous
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disadvantages fo scatter graphs
takes time and accuracy to construct / sometimes diificualt to draw a line of best fit
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aim of a pir chart
used to compare catagories within a data set
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advantages of a pie chart
easily understood universally / summerise large amounts of data visually
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disadvantages of pie charts
not easy to know exact values / cant show change over time / confusing if there are a lot of variable
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aim of a triangular graph
graph with 3 axis that compares the % of 3 variables
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advantages of a triangular graph
compares 3 variable / relative importance can be seen
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disadvantages of triangular graphs
confusing if there are many plotted points / only be used fro 3 variables that only measure %
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aim of a kite diagram
change in the % of a variable over a certain distance e.g. vegetation
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advantages of kite diagrams
species can be compared / compares 2 variables / easy and clear
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disadvantages of kite diagrams
only compares 2 variables / difficult to identify anomolies
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aim of a radial diagram
values extend out from a central point to show how it changes
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advantages of radial diagrams
compare multiple sets of data / lots of data on one graph / visual representation
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disadvantages of radial diagrams
cant link to a statistical test / difficult to spot anomolies / doesnt say why
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aim of a logarithmic scale
a scale of measurement that uses the logarithmic of physical quantity
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how did you analyse results
rank distance downstream + velocity / ranked both sets 1-10 smallest = 10 largest = 1 / worked out the difference in ranks / squared this number and added them up / put that number into spearmans rank formula got the result 0.73
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what was the outlier for water width and at what site did it occur
0.76 at site 5
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what was the outlier for velocity and at what site did it occur
0.245 at site 8
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what was the outlier for discharge and at what site did it occur
0.0708 at site 8
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what did velocity increase from and what did it end as
0.167 to 0.304
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how was the data you collected accurate and reliabel
did the same at each site / used flow vane / startified sampling / each group did it at each site so took the average
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


strengths of a line graph


easy to read and interpret // shows specific values // can predict future results //

Card 3


disadvantages of a line graph


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


aim of a bar graph


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


strengths of a bar graph


Preview of the front of card 5
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