Geography Regeneration

  • Created by: td142
  • Created on: 19-03-18 08:28

Hudson Yards

  • $1 billion for the rights to the airspace above the train yard
  • - No land, just the air.
  • 4,000 flats
  • 10 million sq feet of office space
  • 17 million sq feet of commercial space
  • 100 shops
  • Hotel with over 200 rooms
  • When completed in 2025, 125,000 people a day will work here.
  • 23,000 construction jobs
  • 750 seat public school
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Cardiff Bay Development


  • CBDC set up in April 1987 to regenerate 1100 hectares of old derelict docklands.
  • Part of the govts 'Urban Development Programme' to regenerate deprived areas of inner cities.
  • Docklands declined in importance as the coal, iron and steel industry dissappeared. The area then became deprived.
  • The area began to experence urban decay.

Main Aims

  • To promote development and to provide a superb environment in which people will want to live, work and play.
  • To reunite the city centre with the water front.
  • Provide a mix of development that would give many job opportunities.
  • Recognise the area as a centre of excellence with international importance.
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Cardiff Bay Development 2


  • Undertaken to create a healthy mix of housing, open space, commerce, liesure and industrial development.
  • £2.4 billion total cost. Public to private investment 1:4.
  • 200 hectare, 1.1km barrage.
  • Construction of new homes - Atlantic Wharf.
  • New offices like Crickhowell House which is now the home of the national asssembly of Wales.
  • Created leisure facilities such as Mermaid Quay on the waterfront and the
    Atlantic Wharf Leisure Village.
  • 30,000 jobs created.
  • 6,000 houses built.
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Cardiff Bay Development 3


  • Local residents of Butetown cannot access the facilities as they're too expensive.
  • Locals were not consulted in the redevlopement process, CBDC didn't involve them.
  • The barrage costs £20 million each year to maintain.
  • The mudflats that have been filled were important to migrating birds.
  • People were concerned that Salmon would not be able to reach the River Taff for spawning.
    - CBDC created a way for the Salmon to pass through.
    - population has actually increased from 100 to 500, proves success.
  • Concern over the barrage raising ground water levels of the surrounding area.
  • Causing increased dampness in properties.
  • - health problems in young and elderly
  • - increased dampness
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Cardiff - Loudoun Square, Butetown

Contrast to the Bay

  • Butetwon ranked as one of the most deprived communities in Wales.
  • 42 different ethnicities
  • £13 million investment initiative at the heart of Butetown.
  • Agreement in 2006 between: Cardiff Housing Association, Cardiff Council and the Vale Health Board.
  • 'deliver a safe and inclusive development to revitalise a community challenged with high levels of unemployment and poor health.

What they did

  • Building of a new health centre, pharmacy, media centre, council information centre, employment support cenre and commercial kitchen.
  • 13 new retail units
  • 61 new affordable homes all within 0.8 hectares of land
  • Community engagement was encouraged and increased through out
  •  - on site community room for residents
  •  - regular newsletters to 300 homes - making people feel more involved.
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Sheffield Regen


  • England's 3rd largest city, ex-steel town.
  • Bombed heavily in WW2, much was rebuilt in the 50s with concrete - not attractive.
  • De-industrilaised in the 70's-80's.
  • Has had supertram in place for 20 years.
  • The Moor (in town) shopping centre.
  • Meadowhal (out of town) shopping centre.
  • Much larger than Cardiff
  • Lower Don Valley Development Corporation
  • Renewal of the brownfeld sites was hard because the ground was so polluted from the iron and steel works. 
  • Massive investment was needed to clean up the area before any devlopment happened.
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Sheffield Regen - Meadowhall

Meadowhall Shopping Centre

  • Situated in the Lower Don Valley which used to be steel works.
  • Opened in 1990 at a cost of £250m.
  • 1.4 million sq feet of floor space.
  • 12,000 free parking spaces.
  • 1% of all money spent in Sheffield region is related to Meadowhall.
  • Created 7,000 jobs, lower than the promised 10,000.
  • Many jobs given to the ex-industrial familes - boosted economy.
  • Has forced inner city shops to close because all the custom goes to Meadowhall.
  • Only includes chain shops, no local shops have benefitted.
  • Has meant that supertram hasn't been effective - why tram into the city to shop if you can easily access Meadowhall for everything you need?
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Sheffield Regen - Park Hill


  • Built to house people after the Blitz.
  • 3,000 people, 13 stories, 4 blocks.
  • Was overall a large success but concrete (although fast) was too cheap and was not robust.
  • Europe's largest grade 2 listed building.
  • Strong sense of community and identity.
  • Bult 'for the people' which the Cardiff Bay Development was not.
  • Became a 'sink estate'. Became a dumping ground for problem families.
  • 45% male unemployment rate

Urban Splash

  • £146 million transformation given go-ahead in 2007. Agreement between Sheffield City Council and Urban Splash.
  • 634 redeveloped units for sale, 200 to rent.
  • 1/3 will be affordable homes.
  • 'help to buy' schemes for younger people - shifting identity. Great place for young people.
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Broadwater Farm

In the 80s

  • Lots of rioting - killed a police officer.
  • Most notoriously dangerous estate in Britain - heavy violence.
  • Urban Decay

Regeneration of the estate

  • £33 million spent on redesigning the estate's layout
  • Common areas, landscaped gardens, health and enterprise centres put in.
  • Policing unit put in place to help build better relations with locals.
  • New children's centre opened in 2007.
  • Police need to work as part of the community to be successfull in a 'sink estate'
  • Massive success - no muggings at all in 2005
  • Population of now 3,800 with 39 different nationalities
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HS2 Rail Link


  • Help to push some wealth out of London (primate city).
  •  - however may actually increase wealth in London and further deprive Birmingham.
  • Improve transport nationally.
  • Reduce the north/south divide.
  • Businesses will set up in Birmingham/Manchester because of cheaper rent prices compared to London whilst still, potentially, getting the custom because people will travel via HS2 because it doesn't take long.
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HS2 +/-

Overall Scheme

  • 14 trains per hour at 250mph.
  • £32.7 billion estimated cost.
  • 15 years to complete. First stage being London to Birmingham.
  • Increased movement of people means core periphary model extended - boosts economy.
  • Boost economy and provide a long-term national asset.


  • NIMBYism
  • Planned route goes through very expensive areas where important people live.
  • Will be heavily opposed by highly educated people: lawyers, docotrs, MPs...
  • Thousands willl lose their houses - however will be paid off.
  • STOP HS2 - very influential group acting against the scheme.
  • Massive damage to rural Britain.
  • Many better value alternatives - only £10bn to refurb the West Coast Mainline which is in desperate need and is very busy.
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Boscombe - Artificial Reef


  • Chav Town, one of the worst places to live in Britain.
  • 'Chav' used to describe the white working class stereotype.
  • Boscombe: poor education, bad job prospects, loss of public services.
  • Cheap flights to Spain have killed its economy.
  • Most expensive street in Britain - Sandbanks in why is Boscombe so poor?

How they regenerated

  • Re-did the sea front to look good
  • Put up and painted high qulaity beach huts - but were far too expensive to buy.
  • £3 million structure of 55 sandbags that were supposed to create surfing waves.
  • Creation of waves hasn't worked.
  • Reef was closed off 2 years later as 2 sandbags split which made it unsafe.
  • 'last ditch' attempt for the reef to have a use was to install a snorkelling trail
  •  - they were going to sink other objects to create an interesting trail
  •  - but the funding as been retracted
  • Branded as a 'sunken memorial to council incompetence'
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New Era Estate

Issues faced by the Estate

  • PLAYER MP Richard Benyon bought a stake in East London Estate
  • Rent currently over £1,000 less than avg per month in the area.
  • MP wants to rise the rent to closer to market value, big profit margin £796-£2000 increase.
  • Residents describing it as 'social cleansing' because they can't afford this price rise.

How they resisted the changes

  • Enlisted the help of Russel Brand who brought it to a national scale and allowed more people to become aware of the situation.
  •  - took a petition of 294,000 signatures to Downing Street
  •  - Boris Johnson said 'FDI in the property market is the only realistic way to fund affordable housing' which is what the US company were trying to do.
  • Got enough people behind the campaign that the 96 properties were sold to no-for-profit landlord Dolphin Living
  • The estate needs develeoping so rent will be raised more sustainably to allow funds for this to happen.
  • Requires the 'richer' residents to pay more rent than the poorer, not sustainable.
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Nine Elms, Battersea - Gated Community


  • Largest brick building in Europe.
  • Announced in 2013 that the building would be redeveloped as a luxury residential development
  • £750 million estimated total cost.
  • 866 new homes in this desirable area of South West London.
  • 200 shops on the lower floors.
  • Flats went on sale in 2016, sold out instantly.
  •  - not for the Londoners.
  •  - gated community because it is very exclusive with the prices involved.
  •  - absentee owners, foreign businesses men buying as investement but not to live.

Nine Elms

  • It is hoped 25,000 permanent jobs will be created and 16,000 new homes built, including 3,000 under affordable schemes.
  • £15 bn overall plan for Nine Elms
  • £1 bn being invested in improving transport links to meet demands of the inc population.
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Viking Wind Farm


  • Economy - massively supported by Sullom Voe oil terminal.
  • Farming isn't great, poor quality soil and grass.
  • Tourism massive contributor - very beautiful area - wind farm puts this at risk, less touism?

Viking Wind Farm

  • 103 turbines given planning permission in 2012
  • 370MW capacity, 129km sq area of turbines.
  • £556 million with only a £20 million return each year.
  • £300 million 'Shetland HVDC Connection' built in 2011 to connect to the national grid
  •  - Viking provided 10% of this funding as part of the deal
  • Large amount of construction/maintenance jobs will be created


  • 2,772 people rejected it, only 1,115 supported.
  • RSPB Scotland massively resisted it as it would damage rare Whimbrel population.
  • Lots of peat soils in Scotland, massive CO2 release when dug up for the turbines.
  • Concern that Shetland Trust (the landowner) would get a financial reward for YES vote.
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London Docklands


  • In 1981, the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) was set up to try to improve social, environmental and economic conditions of the area.
  • Given 3 main tasks by the govt, improve: social, economic and envronmental conditions.

What was done?

  • Housing: 22,000 new homes created (many are former warehouses converted to luxury flats). 10,000 refurbished former terraced houses
    -in 1981 population= 40,000                     -in 2000 population= 85,000
  • Number of jobs increased, in 1981= 27,000  in 2000= 90,000.
  • Many new firms and financial institutions e.g. Stock Exchange, ITV Studios, newspaper offices.
  • Many high-rise office blocks, esp. at Canary Wharf.
  • 750 hectares of derelict land reclaimed.
  • 200,000 trees planted.
  • 130 hectares of open space created.
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London Docklands 2


  • New jobs went to people living outside the area, as local people did not have the technical skills (a lot of new jobs created were in finance/media industries–using high tech equipment–local people not skilled enough to do these types of jobs).
  • A lot of new housing far too expensive for locals.
  • More money was spent on providing infrastructure (expensive offices + houses) and a clean environment for office workers; than on services (e.g. hospitals and care for elderly, health + educational facilities for local people).
  • Noise + air pollution (dust) from the building.
  • Prices in area generally increased (e.g. in shops, bars etc.) –Newcomers were wealthy, causing local shop and recreational prices to rise.
  • Newcomers did not mix with local people–tension–causing a breakdown of East Ender’s community. Break down of IDENTITY.
  • Lived experience decreased.
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London Olympic Park


  • Mostly situated within Newham.
  • Has high levels of poverty and unemployment, 8%.
  • Derelict, contaminarted land and polluted waterways existed.
  • Good location because there were many brownfield sites that could be developed upon.
  • Stratford had great public transport links and was well connected to key areas in London.

What was it?

  • £6bn redevelopment was administered by the Olympic Development Authority (ODA)
  • Stadium to seat 80,000 people.
  • Aquatics centre.
  • Hockey centre.
  • Accomodation for the athletes.
  • £150m refit to Stratford Station.
  • Westfield Shopping Centre built by private investors.
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London Olympic Park 2


  • 7,000 temporary jobs. 5,000 construction jobs.
  • Jobs suitable for low-skilled labour, local people could get the jobs.
  • Olympic village was converted into 3,000 affordable homes after the games.
  • Olympic stadium sold to West Ham FC, not left to be derelct.
  • Derelict land removed and replaced with 4,000 trees and 74,000 plants.


  • Many of the jobs were only short term.
  • Only 20% were recruited from the local area.
  • Cost £9.3bn in total.
  • The games missed their targets for recycling waste and building materials.

Contrast with Rio 2016 Olympics. Buildings here have been left derelict, becoming an eye sore, have been vandalised, seats stolen from stadium, rubbish everywhere...

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Rural - FoD Northern Quarter

  • Want to build a road between Cinderford to Gloucester College Site.
  • Will enable employment, leisure, residential devlopment.
  • £100 potntial future investment.
  • 1,000 jobs will be created.
  • 195 new homes.
  • New £15 million Royal Forest of Dean campus for Gloucestershire College.
  • £8.9 million ‘spine’ access road to enable the employment, leisure and residential development proposed for this former mining area.
  • Nearly 40 business units and potential to create a new facility linked to the area's mining heritage at the Northern United site.
  • An improved entrance to the site from the A4136 has also been approved.
  • The regeneration will bring in new people, lower lived experience, change in identity,
    cultural erosion.
  • Lots of housing being put forward - creating a commuter village?
  • FOD Council's local plan. 
  • Local interest groups - chamber of commerce/ preservation societies.
  • Heritage - dean heritage centre - clearwell caves - hopewell colliery.
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Lagos - land reclamation


  • Estimated housing deficit of 2.5 million.
  • Population set to double by 2050.
  • More than 500,000 people move to the city each year
  • Existing housing is too expensive for most residents.

Eko Atlantic

  • Mega-city being built on 10sq km of land reclaimed from the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Protected by an 8.5km sea wall.
  • Aims to house 450,000 residents.
  • However, critics belive it'll only cater for the super-rich.
  • Creators say it's aimed at the middle income which is set to grow massivley.


  • 'Tempo Housing Nigeria' a company providing homes from refurbed cargo containers.
  • 25% cheaper than normal housing and can be built in 2 weeks.
  • Actually set up for the poor, cheap housing that the super-rich won't want.
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Dharavi, Mumbai

  • Area of 2 sq km housingg 700,000 people - urbanisation
  • High density
  • Make shift housing
  • Poor sanitation - open sewage - toxic materials
  • Rationed water
  • Lack of public toilets - disease
  • Informal sector and black market


  • Sits in a very strategic area of Mumbai, right next to the financial capital.
  • Skyscraper apartment blocks to house slum dwellers which will increase density and make more land available for further development. 
  • Skyscraper would be funded by some fancy 5* hotels so that the developers can afford to put up the high rise apartments for the slum dwellers
  • However - apartments only housing 25% of the people, where do the rest go?
  • Argument that high-rise will destroy economy for the poor, much less footfall.
  • Thousands don't 'officially' live there - okay to throw them out? Neglect of human rights?
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Culham, Oxfordshire

  • Avg home price now costs 8x the avg earnings
  • Govt needs to build 300,000 homes py to meet demand - starting to use green belt to do so
  • Culham council just announced plans to build new town next it
  • 170 houses to 3,500. Population of 10,000 once completed.
  • COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT - locals organised a meeting to discuss how they'll resist the venture
  • PLAYER - John Cotton - leader of the South Oxord District Council
  • Example where the development has worked - Didcot - just south of Culham
  • - however objectors are using Didcot as argument against because of it being characterless and ugly
  • NIMBYISM - rich and well educated nimbys that know what and how to do 
  • People against it already own a house in the area - what about those that don't/can't?
  • Those that don't want the houses have the loudest voice - silent majority wanting them?
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mmm very nice 




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