Geography - Globalisation

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Define globalisation
Globalisation refers to the process by which the world’s local and regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated together through a global network of communication, transportation and trade.
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What is meant by deepening connections?
More peoples lives connect with far away places
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What is meant by lengthening connections?
New Links between places that are greater distances apart
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What is meant by faster connections?
Faster speed of connections with people able to talk to one another in real time or travelling quickly between continents using jet aircraft
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What are the four types of globalisation?
Economics, social, political and cultural
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What is economics globalisation?
The growth of transnational corporations accelerating cross-border exchanges of raw materials, components, finished manufactured goods and shares. Improvements in ICT. E.G. Online purchasing using Amazon on a smartphone
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What is social globalisation?
International immigration creating extensive family networks in different countries, creating multi-ethnic societies. Global improvements in education and health. Social interconnectivity has grown due to the internet.
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What is political globalisation?
The growth of trading blocs (E.G. the EU) helps markets grow. Global concerns such as credit crunch and the global response to natural disasters (E.G. Japan tsunami 2011). The WB, IMF and WTO work to harmonise national economies.
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What is cultural globalisation?
'Successful' Western cultural traits come to dominate in some territories (E.G. Americanisation or McDonaldisation). Glocalisation takes place as old local cultures merge and meld with globalising influences.
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What is interdependence mean?
Countries becoming more reliant on each other
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What developments in transport and trade occurred in the 19th century?
Railways, telegraph and steam ships
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What developments in transport and trade occurred in the 20th century?
Jet aircraft, containerisation
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What is containerisation?
goods being packed into large metal boxes for transport by road and/or sea.
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How has electronics banking developed over time?
1983 - Bank of Scotland offered first internet banking in the UK; 'Homelink'. 2001 - 19 millions US households are accessing online bank accounts. 2012 - 72 million US adults using mobile banking
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How has the internet changed over time?
1994 - The world wide web was introduced. 2000-2004 - Social media networks such as Skype and Facebook introduced. 2013 - 83% of Australian households had internet access
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How have mobile phones developed over time?
1972 - the first mobile phone was created. 2001 - first camera phone released with a capacity of 20 photos at 0.3 megapixels. 2007 - Apple iPhone released, revolutionising the mobile phone industry
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How has social media changed over time?
1995 - MSN launched. 2004 - Facebook founded. 2014 - over 300 million people using instagram
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How have fibre optics changed over time?
1930 - first image transmitted through optical fibres. 1997 - first all optic fibre cable TPC-5, laid across the Pacific Ocean, connecting the USA and Japan.
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Define flow
go from one place to another in a steady stream, typically in large numbers
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Define time-space compression
the set of processes that cause the relative distances between places (i.e., as measured in terms of travel time or cost) to contract, effectively making such places grow “closer.”
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Define free trade
international trade left to its natural course without tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions
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Define FDI
an investment made by a company or individual in one country in business interests in another country, in the form of either establishing business operations or acquiring business assets in the other country, such as ownership in a foreign country
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What is the IMF?
an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth
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What is the WB?
an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs
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What is a free market?
an economic system in which prices are determined by unrestricted competition between privately owned businesses
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What is economics liberalisation?
the lessening of government regulations and restrictions in an economy in exchange for greater participation by private entities
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What is privatisation?
the process of transferring an enterprise or industry from the public sector to the private sector
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What is a tariff?
a tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports
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What is a quota?
a limited quantity of a particular product which under official controls can be produced, exported, or imported
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What is a start-up?
an entrepreneurial venture which is typically a newly emerged, fast-growing business that aims to meet a marketplace need by developing or offering an innovative product, process or service
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What is offshoring?
the practice of basing some of a company's processes or services overseas, so as to take advantage of lower costs
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What is outsourcing?
obtain (goods or a service) by contract from an outside supplier
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What is deindustrialisation?
the reduction of industrial activity or capacity in a region or economy
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What is dereliction?
the state of having been abandoned and become dilapidated
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What is deprivation?
the damaging lack of material benefits considered to be basic necessities in a society
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What is a push factor?
a negative aspect or condition that motivates one to leave one's country
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What is a pull factor?
the pull factor is what draws them to a new location.
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What is rural-urban migration?
the movement of people from the countryside to the city
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What is a megacity?
a very large city, typically one with a population of over ten million people
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What is a hub city?
a city that provides a focal point for activities that have a global influence
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What is elite migration?
highly skilled and often very rich individuals who are invited to work overseas by Transnational Corporations or governments
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What is low-wage migration?
migration of people in low wage, unskilled occupations
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What is a source location?
the country from which immigrants originate
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What is the host location?
the country where immigrants migrate to
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What is brain drain?
the emigration of highly trained or qualified people from a particular country
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What is a remittance?
the sending of money, checks, etc., to a recipient at a distance
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What is xenophobia?
dislike of or prejudice against people from other countries
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What is a brand?
a type of product manufactured by a particular company under a particular name
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What does westernised mean?
cause (a country, person, or system) to adopt or be influenced by the cultural, economic, or political systems of Europe and North America
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What is global culture?
the transmission of ideas, meanings and values around the world in such a way as to extend and intensify social relations
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What is globalisation?
the process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale
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What is cultural diffusion?
the spread of cultural beliefs and social activities from one group to another
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What is the human development index?
a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development
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What is the gender inequality index?
an index for measurement of gender disparity that was introduced in the 2010 Human Development Report 20th anniversary edition by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
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What is income inequality?
the unequal distribution of household or individual income across the various participants in an economy
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What is the lorenz curve?
a graph on which the cumulative percentage of total national income (or some other variable) is plotted against the cumulative percentage of the corresponding population (ranked in increasing size of share)
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What is the gini coefficient?
a measure of inequality of a distribution. It is defined as a ratio with values between 0 and 1: the numerator is the area between the Lorenz curve of the distribution and the uniform distribution line; the denominator is the area under the uniform
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What are open borders?
refers to a policy of unlimited or free immigration
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What is deregulation?
the reduction or elimination of government power in a particular industry, usually enacted to create more competition within the industry
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What is a diaspora?
the dispersion or spread of any people from their original homeland
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What is extremism?
the holding of extreme political or religious views
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What is censorship?
the suppression of free speech, public communication or other information which may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, politically incorrect or inconvenient as determined by governments, media outlets, authorities or other groups
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What is trade protectionism?
the economic policy of restraining trade between states (countries) through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations
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What are first nations?
an indigenous American Indian community officially recognized as an administrative unit by the federal government or functioning as such without official status
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What is localism?
preference for one's own area or region, especially when this results in a limitation of outlook
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What is a transition town?
grassroot community projects that aim to increase self-sufficiency to reduce the potential effects of peak oil, climate destruction, and economic instability
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What is sustainabilty?
the quality of not being harmful to the environment or depleting natural resources, and thereby supporting long-term ecological balance
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What is fair trade?
trade between companies in developed countries and producers in developing countries in which fair prices are paid to the producers
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What is ethical consumption?
the practice of purchasing products and services produced in a way that minimises social and/or environmental damage, while avoiding products and services deemed to have a negative impact on society or the environment
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What is recycling?
convert (waste) into reusable material
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What is an ecological footprint?
the impact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources
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Give an example of a SAP from the IMF?
Tanzania - water was cut off in the capital city as a condition on $143 million of debt relief
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What is inorganic FDI?
Where a foreign firm buys a company in another country
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What is organic FDI?
Where foreign investment expands the operations of an existing business in a foreign country
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Name three strategies that the UK has used to promote economics liberalisation
Free-market liberalisation, privatisation and encouraging business start ups
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Describe the impact of free-market liberalisation on trade in the UK
The deregulation of the city of London in 1896 removed the 'red-tape' and aided the city to become the world's leading global finance hub
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Describe the impact of privatisation on trade in the UK
Assets like the railways were sold to private investors to save money, such as Keolis owning a large part of Southern England's rail line, which has allowed foreign investors to gain a stake in privatised national services
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Describe the impact of encouraging business start ups on trade in the UK
Methods such as low business taxes allow local and foreign-owned businesses to make more profit. The introduction of Sunday trading in 1994 has also made the UK more attractive for foreign retailers
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Name two strategies that China has used to increase globalisation
Special economic zones and open door policy
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Describe the impact of SEZs on trade in China
SEZs are large areas of land set by the gov. in locations well placed for int. trade such as ports, in which tax free trade is allowed. In 1980 four SEZs were set up. The rapidly grew China's economy; in the 1990s 50% of China's GDP was from SEZs
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Describe the impact of the open door policy on trade in China
In 1978, Xiaoping began radical 'open door' reforms, which allowed China to embrace globalisation while remaining under one authoritarian rule. The government loosened control over citizens' personal lives, and moved to a mixed economy. Over 30 years
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Name 3 positives and 3 negatives of TNCs on host countries
P - 1. Raised living standards (higher wages) 2. Political stability (less conflict between rural and urban pops) 3. Higher environmental standards (Unilever sus. living 2010) N - 1. Growing global inequalities (east and west china) 2. Environment
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Give 2 physical reasons some locations remain switched off
Wilderness and low agricultural potential
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Give 2 political reasons some locations remain switched off
Conflict and weak commitment of government to development
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Give 2 economics reasons some locations remain switched off
Poor infrastructure and poor workforce skills
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Explain North Korea's lack of connection to the global economy
After the Korean war (1950-53) Korea split to form North and South Korea. North Korea came under communist control and adopted a policy of economic 'self-reliance' to stop outside influence. It now relies on Chinese aid to feed the population.
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Describe 4 benefits of growth in China (IRIB)
1. Investment in infrastructure - World's largest highway network, 82 airports built in 16 years. 2. Reduction in poverty - 300m Chinese now middle class, extreme poverty rate reduced by 74% since 1980. 3. Increase in urban income - risen by 10%
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Describe 6 costs of growth in China (LUPLOL)
1. Loss of farmland - 3m hectares polluted with heavy metals 2. Unplanned settlements - increase in informal homes, decent housing unaffordable 3. Pollution - 70% of rivers in China polluted, 360m don't have access to safe drinking water
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Describe 3 benefits of growth in Mumbai (APR)
1. Chhatrapati Shivaji International airport is the airport of the city, and is being increased to 40m passengers a year 2. Jawahan Nehru port hand 55% of India's cargo 3. HQ of two Indian railway zones (central and western)
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Describe 3 costs of growth in Mumbai (LSH)
1. Average price of land is $250,000/95m2 2. 60% live in slums 3. Half of the remainder live in dilapidated houses and flats
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Describe two impacts of the global shift on Leicester (DU)
1. Dereliction and contamination - businesses forced to close due to deindustrialisation, derelict land contaminated by chemical waste 2. Unemployment and depopulation - in the 70s and 80s many cities experienced populations declines, causing
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Name three push factors and three pull factors
Push - low pay, drought and flooding, lack of services. Pull - Better opportunities, better housing, better pay
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What is an NGO?
a non-profit organization that operates independently of any government, typically one whose purpose is to address a social or political issue
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What is a transition town?
A community project that seeks to build resilience in response to the issues of peak oil, climate change and economics instability, by creating local groups that uphold the values of the transition network
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Describe three negative impacts of globalisation
Higher levels of consumption in relation to wages, production has quadrupled in last 50 years, recycling remains low and plastics are polluting environment
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Describe 3 benefits of transition towns
Reduced dependency on fossil fuels, community gardens reduce dependency on other countries for food, sustainable economies created by using local currencies
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Describe a drawback of transition towns
Only effective if entire community is willing to participate
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What is fair trade?
trade between companies in developed countries and producers in developing countries in which fair prices are paid to the producers
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Describe the Fairtrade System
Seeks greater equity in international trade by promoting fair terms of trade to benefit farmers and workers
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Give an example of a companies attempt to reduce environmental degradation
Starbucks introduced fair trade coffees in 2009, reducing their carbon emissions
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How are inequalities reduced?
Wage benchmarks raise the income of low income workers
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How are conditions for workers improved?
Producers certified by fair trade must uphold health and safety guidelines for their workers
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What is recycling?
Converting waste into reusable material to prevent wasting resources
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Describe three ways recycling reduces negative impacts of globalisation
1. Reduction in env. degradation - 2014 43.7% recycled, recycling aluminium to produce more reduce amount of fossil fuels emitted 2. Reduction in production - new resources don't need to be extracted 3. Reduction in ecological ftprnt - between 2001
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Give an example of a scheme to reduce waste
Keep Britain Tidy, 1954 - tidy man logo
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What is the Bristol pound?
A local currency, used to improve Bristol's economy by supporting independent traders and maintain diversity
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Give one economic, social and environmental cost of the Bristol pound
Ec - consumers miss out on benefits of competition from supermarkets e.g. Lidl So - Excludes outsiders, cutting wider connections En - sometimes more energy efficient to source products from foreign countries, despite transportation
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Give one economic, social and environmental benefit of the Bristol pound
Ec - money spent at independent traders will stay within the local area, So - stronger bonds between consumers and businesses increasing cooperation En - increasing self-sufficiency reducing transport emmissions
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What is meant by deepening connections?

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More peoples lives connect with far away places

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What is meant by lengthening connections?

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What is meant by faster connections?

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What are the four types of globalisation?

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