Food Tech

Aeration
When air is trapped in a mixture.
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Anti-oxidant
A substance that stops food going rancid.
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Aseptic packaging
Preserves food without using preservatives or chilling.
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Biodegradable
Broken down totally by bacteria.
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Caramelisation
Process of changing the colour of sugar from white to brown when heated.
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Coagulation
When eggs are heated the proteins cause them to change colour and become firm-set.
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Colloidal structure
When two substances are mixed together.
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Colloids
Formed when one substance is dispersed through another.
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Commercially viable
Make a profit when it is sold.
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Couli
A fruit that has been pureed, sieved and then thickened.
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Critical Control Point
When a food safety hazard can be prevented/reduced to an acceptable level.
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Cross contamination
The transfer of food spoilage/poisoning from one food to another.
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Cryogenic freezing
Fodd is immersed or sprayed with liquid nitrogen. Freezes rapidly, forming small ice crystals and reducing cell damage.
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Curdling
Fat separates from the sugar and eggs when the egg is added.
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Dextrinisation
When starch converts into a sugar.
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Dietary Reference Values (DRV)
Scientifically calculated estimates of the amounts of nutrients needed by different groups of people.
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E numbers
The classification system used for food additives showing that it has passed the European Community Safety Standards.
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Emulsifier
A substance that stops oil and water from separating.
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Emulsion
A mixture of two liquids. Immiscible liquids form an unstable emulsion.
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Enrobing
Coating and surrounding a product with another ingredient.
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Enzymic browning
Reaction between a food product and oxygen resulting in a brown colour.
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Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
The average need for a nutrient.
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Fermentation
When yeast produces carbon dioxide.
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Finishing
Completing the presentation of a food product to a high standard.
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Foam
A mixture of a gas and liquid creating light texture and increase volume e.g. meringues.
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Gel
A small amount of solid mixed into a large amount of liquid which then sets.
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Gelatinisation
Heated starch granules absorb liquid and swell, and burst to thicken liquid.
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Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA)
Guide to amounts of calories, sugar, fat, saturated fat and salt you should try not exceed to have a healthy balanced diet.
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Hermetically
Airtight.
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High-risk food
Food which is an ideal medium for the growth of microorganisms.
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Modified Atmospheric Packaging (MAP)
Used to extend the shelf life of foods.
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Modified starches
Starches that have been altered to perform additional functions.
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Non Starch Polysaccharide (NSP)
The part of food that is not digested by the body - dietary fibre.
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Quality control
Steps taken to check a product at various stages of making to ensure a consistent and high quality outcome is achieved.
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Raising agent
Increases the volume if doughs, batters and mixtures by promoting aeration.
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Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI)
The amount of a nutrient that is enough for most people in a group.
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Shelf life
The length of time a food product can be kept and be safe to eat.
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Shortening
When fat coats the flour particles preventing the absorption of water resulting in a crumbly texture.
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Solution
When a solid dissolves in a liquid.
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Standard component
Pre-prepared ingredient that is used in the production of another product.
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Staple food
A food that forms the basis of a traditional diet.
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Suspension
A solid held in a liquid. Must be stirred to keep solids evenly mixed.
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Syneresis
Loss of liquid from a gel on standing.
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Tolerance
The amount of difference allowed when making something.
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Vacuum packaging
A way of preserving food by removing all the air.
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Viscosity
The thickness of a mixture.
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Eatwell plate
The proportions of food groups we should eat. 1 portion = about 80g.
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Health Weight, Healthy Lives
Government strategy aimed at lowering obesity and excess weight.
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Fortification
Addition of nutrients to food e.g. margarine must conatins vitamins A and D as it is eaten in the diets of many people.
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Nutritional Profile
Amount of nutrient in a dish.
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Macro-nutrient
Protein, fat, carbohydrates.
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Micro-nutrient
Vitamins and minerals.
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Essential amino acids
The 9 amino acids not made by the body so have to be obtained in the diet. Animal tissue, soya bean and quorn contain al EAAs so have a high biological value.
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Saturated fat
Raises cholesterol, found in butter.
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Hydrogenated fat
Hydrogen bubbled through oils to improve flavour and shelf life, raises cholesterol, found in margarine.
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Unsaturated fat
Lowers cholesterol, found in oily fish and vegetable oils.
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Polysaccharides
Makes up starch, low glycaemic index - releases energy slowly.
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Vitamin A
Found in liver, egg yolk, dark leafy vegetables. Needed for healthy eyes and bone growth. Deficient - vision problems, dry skin, slow growth. Excess - orange tint to skin. (fat soluble)
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Vitamin D
Found in cereals, sunlight. Needed for strong teeth and bones. Deficient - rickets, osteoporosis, poor foetal development. (fat soluble)
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Vitamin B complex
Foun in wholegrain cereals, yeast, meat. Needed to release energy from food. Deficient - beri beri. (water soluble)
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Folic acid
Found in leafy green vegetables, pulses, bananas. Needed to make red blood cells. Deficient - neural tube defects e.g. spina bifida. (water soluble)
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Vitamin C (ascobic acid)
Found in citrus fruits, green vegetables, blackcurrants. Needed to help iron absorption. Deficient - scurvy, slow healing of wounds. (water soluble)
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Calcium
Found in dairy products, green vegetables. Needed for strong bones and teeth, blood clotting. Deficient - rickets, weak teeth, muscle and nerve problems. (used with phosphorus)
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Iron
Found in meat, cocoa, dried fruit, green leafy vegetables. Needed to transport oxygen in the body. Deficient - anaemia. Excess - liver damage.
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Water
Needed in the body to control body temperature, lubricate joints, healthy skin, prevent constipation.
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Diabetes
Disease in which sufficient insulin cannot be produced. Need a diet low in sugar, salt and fat and high in fruit, vegetables and starchy carbohydrates.
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Lactose intolerance
Body cannot digest the natural sugars found in many dairy products.
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Nut allergy
Trace of nut triggers anaphylaxis shock including sweeling airways and low blood pressure.
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Coeliac disease
Nutrients can't be absorbed if gluten is eaten causing bone disease, cancer and grwoth problems.
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Judaism
No shellfish, pork. Only kosher meat. No dairy products and meat in the same meal.
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Hinduism
No beef.
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Sikhism
No beef. May be vegetarian.
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Islam
No pork. Only halal meat.
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Organic
Produce without use of chemical pesticides, fungicides or synthetic drugs.
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Assured Food Standards - Red Tractor
Foods which have been produced to meet specific standards for home grown foods.
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Fairtrade
Guarantees a better deal for third-world producers of food.
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Mechanically recovered meat
Pressure blasting the animal carcass against a sieve.
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Tenderising
Can be done through marinating, mechanical, aging or artificial substances.
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Oily fish
Herring, mackerel, trout.
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White fish
Round - cod, haddock. Flat - plaice, turbot.
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Shellfish
Crustaceans - crabs, prawns. Molluscs - oysters, scallops.
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Homogenised
Milk is forced through tiny holes under great pressure so fat gluboles break down and can't reform.
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Enriching
Adding colour and improving nutritional value.
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Citric acid
Prevents enzymic browning, sets protein in cream, helps jam form a gel.
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Acetic acid
Prevents crystallization in meringues, marinates meat to tenderise it, preserves vegetables, sharp flavour.
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Lactic acid
Formed when bacteria change lactose in milk. Causes protein to coagulate so milk curdles.
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Salmonella
Found in raw meat, eggs. Causes diarrhoea, vomiting, fever.
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Staphylococcus aureus
Found in cooked sliced meats, custards, cream. Causes vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain.
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Clostridium perfringens
Found in raw and cooked meat. Causes nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain.
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Clostridium botilinum
Incorrectly canned meat, fish, vegetables. Causes paralysis, difficulty breathing, double vision, nausea, vomiting.
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Bacillus cereus
Found in cooked rice, pasta. Causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea.
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E-Coli
Found in raw meat, untreated milk and water. Causes diarrhoea, vomiting, blood in diarrhoea.
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Listeria monocytogenes
Found in soft cheese, pate, unpasteurised milk. Causes septicaemia, meningitis, pneumonia.
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Campylobacter
Found in meat, shellfish, untreated water. Causes diarrhoea, headache, fever, abdominal pain.
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Irradiation
Delays ripening and destroys small insects, extending shelf life (must be declared on label).
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Dehydration
Removes moisture, extending shelf life aas bacteria cannot reproduce.
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Cook-chilling
Cooking then cooling to below 5.C in 90 minutes. Stored below 4.C with a shelf life of 5 days.
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Pasteurisation
Liquid heated and held at high temperature for a short time. Only kills some bacteria.
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UHT
Liquid heated and held at very high temperature for a very short time. Kills all bacteria.
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Sterilisation
Food heated to high temperatures for a longer amount of time. Flavours might change. Kills most bacteria.
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E100s
Colours
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E200s
Preservatives
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E300s
Antioxidants
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E400s
Emulsifiers and stabilisers
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E440
Gelling agents (pectin)
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E600s
Colour enhancers
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E900s
Sweeteners
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Nanotechnology
Packaging can be cleaner, stronger, lighter. Redice fat, salt and sugar whilst keeping texture and flavour.
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Biotechnology
Genetically modified foods.
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Disassembly
Existing products are taken apart and analysed in researching a new product.
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Electric Point of Sale System (EPOS)
Database built as food passes through till.
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Hedonic rating
Type of preference testing. Indicate opinion using numbered scale.
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Paired preference
Type of preference testing. Indicate preference over two samples.
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Triangle testing
Type of discriminatory testing. Odd one out from three samples.
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A not A testing
Type of discriminatory testing. Which one is the same as the control sample.
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Attribute testing
Attributes shown on radar graph, used to disassemble other products, create an ideal profile, build up an evaluation, show modifications.
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Just in Time
Materials for manufacture are delivered just in time with an immediate dispatch. Products don't need to be stored - less waste and risk of contamination.
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One off / Jobbing
Small scale manufacture making a prototype in a test kitchen and one final product. Costly and reliant on skilled workers.
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Batch production
Makes a variety of products in large quantities needing equipment and skilled workers.
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Continuous flow production
Makes products with long shelf lives in large quantities needing specialised machinery and unskilled labour.
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Elasticity
When mixed with water, gluten forms an elastic and stretchy texture.
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Plasticity
Fat changes shape under pressure.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Anti-oxidant

Back

A substance that stops food going rancid.

Card 3

Front

Aseptic packaging

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Biodegradable

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Caramelisation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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