Food tech

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  • Food Tech
    • Food development
      • food must be tested and evaluated to meet requirements
      • Brief
        • The first stage, tells you what needs to be changed about the product
      • Market research
        • this is finding out what people want in a product by conducting surveys and questionnaires
      • Design specification
        • the first attempt of listing the needs of the product e.g. shelf life
      • Sensory testing
        • this is for the product to be tested by others so that you know what to change
        • ranking tests are for the order of preference to be listed
        • rating tests tell you how much someone likes a specific aspect of the product
          • profile tests are the results from the rating test put into a star diagram
      • Modifications/ developments
        • final changes made before the final product
    • Functional properties
      • Starch
        • thickens a liquid e.g. sauce
        • forms a gel-like substance when heated
      • Sugar
        • flavours while sweetening
        • colours by caramelising when heated
        • aerates when beaten with fat e.g. in a cake mix
      • Proteins
        • changes from a liquid to a semi solid e.g. heated egg
        • can aerate a mixture e.g. egg white in a meringue mix
      • Fats
        • shortens pastry (makes it more crumbly and less stretchy)
        • helps two liquids stay together (emulsifying agent) e.g. water and oil
        • moistens a mix e.g. cake mix
      • Treating food
        • aerating
          • incorporates air into a mixture by creaming, whisking, beating, folding, rolling or rubbing in
          • raising agentscan be used to make mixtures lighter
        • coagulation
          • turns a liquid into a semi solid or solid
        • preserving
          • helps food to last longer through freezing, canning etc.
        • tenderising
          • making tough meat easier to eat either through marination or mechanical action
        • thickening
          • uses eggs, pulses, cerealsand fruit to thicken liquid like milk with heat applied
    • Packaging functions
      • main purposes
        • to preserve the product
        • to protect the product from damage
        • to make the product more attractive to consumers
        • to make the product easier to transport
      • plastics
        • can be flexible, moulded or rigid
        • resistant to chemicals
        • easy to print on
        • lightweight
        • cheap to produce
        • Modified Atmosphere Packaing (MAP)
      • environmentally friendly
        • recyclable
        • reusable
        • biodegradable
      • Layers of packaging
        • Primary
          • how the product is seen when being sold
        • secondary
          • the packaging which holds multiple amounts of the product before sale e.g. a box
        • transit
          • the container which is moved from factory to distribution centres and retailers
      • Labelling
        • food labelling regulations 1996 require certain information on all pre-packed foods
          • manufacturers name and contact details
          • name of the product
          • description of the product
          • weight
          • ingredients
          • cooking instructions
          • storage instructions
          • shelf life
          • place of origin
          • allergy information
    • Social and environmental issues
      • social factors
        • multicultural - with own cuisines
        • TV encourages people to try new foods
        • travel - exposure to new foods
        • transport means less need for local or 'seasonal' foods
      • environmental issues
        • less or more food miles
      • ethical factors
        • fair trade
        • farm assured - farms have a high standard
        • free range
        • food miles
        • genetically modified
        • organic
        • seasonal
        • sustainability
      • diets
        • calorie controlled
        • coeliac disease
        • diabetes
        • lactose intolerance
        • nut allergy
        • vegetarian

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