Fitness and Training

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Describe the Characteristics of Static Stretching
The muscle is taken to its current elastic limit and held in position (no movements during the stretch). For a period of at least 6 seconds. Targets individual muscles rather than muscle groups. Can be performed alone or with a partner.
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Describe the Characteristics of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Stretching
The muscle group is passively stretched, then contracts isometrically against a resistance while in a stretched position, and then is passively stretched again through the resulting of increased range of motion. Usually partner assisted. Up to 10s.
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Describe the characteristics of Ballistic Stretching
Uses momentum of a moving body or a limb in an attempt to force it beyond its normal range of motion.
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Describe the Charasteristic of Dynamic Stretching
It involves stretching the muscles through a full range of momentum and gradually increasing reach, speed of movement, or both.
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The three Muscle Fibre Types
Type I (slow twitch), Type IIa (FOG), Type IIb (FTG).
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Methods of Training suited to Type I Muscle Fibre
Continuous, Fartlek, Weight Training (best suited to aerobic endurance type activities as they have a slower contraction time).
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Methods of Training suited to Type IIa Muscle Fibre
Fartlek, Interval, Circuit Training (best suited to middle-distance athletes or game players).
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Methods of Training suited to IIb Muscle Fibre
Interval, Circuits, Weight, Plyometric Training (best suited to maximal intensity but short duration activities).
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Adaptations of a Type I Muscle Fibre
Increased vascularisation, increased density of mitochondria, increased quantities of myoglobin, increase resistance to fatigue, ability to exert greater force for longer periods of time.
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Adaptations of a Type IIa Muscle Fibre
Same as Type I Muscle Fibre + increased stores of muscle glycogen, increase in diameter of muscle fibre size / hypertrophy.
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Adaptations of a Type IIb Muscle Fibre
Increase in diameter of muscle fibres / hypertrophy, increase force produced, increased stores of ATP /PC / mucle glycogen, easily fatigued.
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Define Speed
Speed is defined as the time taken to cover a specific distance.
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Define Power
Power is defined as strength times (x) speed.
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Define Aerobic Endurance
It is defined as the ability to sustain sub maximal activities.
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Define Cardiovascular Endurance
It is the ability of the CV system (heart, blood, blood vessels) to work to deliver O2 and remove waste from the working muscles.
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Define Anaerobic Capacity
It is the duration of time that maximum output can be sustained for.
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Define Agility
It is the ability to change direction at speed with control.
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Define Muscular Endurance
It is the ability of the muscles to resist fatigue while exterting a force, performing repeated muscular action over an extended period.
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Define Body Composition
It refers to your somatotype which is calculated based on the amount of muscle, fat and bone which makes up yiour body mass.
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Define Co-ordination
It refers to the ability to link muscular movements in sequence with success.
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Define Balance
It is the ability to maintain control (static or dynamic) of body mass.
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Define Reaction Time
It is the time taken from the representation of a stimulus to resulting appopriate muscular action.
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Define Flexibility
It is that range of movement available at a joint.
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Define Dynamic Strength
Ability to exert a significant repeatedly force for 2-4 minutes i.e. a 2000 meter rowing race.
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Define Maximal (Absolute) Strength
It refers to the greatest force that can be exerted once i.e. rugby tackle.
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Define Static Strength
It is defined as the ability to exert a sustained force without significant movement i.e. a gymnast holding a hand stand position.
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Define Relative Strength
It is defined as the maximum force that can be exerted in proportion to body weight i.e. boxers.
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Define Aerobic Fitness
It is the greatest amount of O2 that can be taken in and used per minute per Kg of bodywieght.
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Identify Fitness Tests used to Monitor the Components of Fitness
Power - Standing Sergeant Jump. Flexibility - Sit and Reach Test. Speed - 30m Spint Test. CVE - 12m Cooper Test / Harvard Step Test. VO2 Max - Multi Stage Fitness Test. Reaction Time - Ruler Drop Test. Co-ordination - Alternative Wall Ball Toss.
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Define Validity
Validity refers to whether the test measures the component of fitness required of it.
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Define Reliability
Reliability refers to whether the tests results can be trusted (human error, wether internal and external variables can have an effect).
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Principles Of Training
Specificity - Training appropriate to your sport and needs. Overload - Requiring the body to work harder than what it has become accustomed to. Reversibility - Loss of training progress. Recovery - Time allowed for growth, repair, super conpensation.
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What does FITT stand for
Frequency - How often you train. Intensity - How hard you train. Time - The duration of the training sessions. Type - The method of training used.
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Main Characteristics of Inteval Training
Based around a W:R ratio, that is repeated, adaptable and sports specific. Longer intervals/shorter recovery 10:4 minutes- endurance athletes. Shorter intervals/longer rest 15s:3m - power athlete.
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Main Characteristics of Weight Training
Working against a variable resistance, for a determined amount of repetitions and or sets, can target muscles or muscle groups, can target specific fitness benefits. Light weigth/more reps - endurance athlete. Heavier Weights/few reps -power athlete.
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Main Characteristics of Circuit Training
Performing at a number of different stations, can be used for whole body workouts/adaptable/train skills. Circuit lasting more than a minute with little rest - endurance athlete. Fewer stations, short time working / longer time resting-power athlete.
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Main Chraracteristic of Continuous Training
Performing at a constant intensity, for an extended period of time (20m +), usually low to medium intensity - aerobic by nature, increase the duration/intensity - endurance athlete. Low level intensity for duration and to burn fat - power athlete.
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Why do athletes use Fitness Testing?
To identify current fitness levels/ascertain if fit enough to compete. To identify strength and weaknesses. To plan a training programme. To monitor effectiveness of programme. To measure progress. To compare with others(competitors/national result).
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Fitness Tests for Endurance Athletes
Multistage Fitness Test (VO2Max), 12 Minute Cooper Run (Cardiovascular Endurance, aerobic fitness, VO2Max), 25 Rep Max Test (Muscular Endurance).
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Fitness Tests for Power Based Athletes
30 Meter Sprint (Speed), Hand Grip Dynamometer (Max Strength), Sergeant/Broad Jump Test (Power), Wingate Test (Anaerobic Capacity).
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Physical Changes to Speed due to Post-Physical Maturation
Muscle Atrophy -> Less powerful contractions leading to shorter and slower stride length. Reduced anabolic capacity -> lower rate of Type IIb Fibre recruitment.
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Physical Changes to Power due to Post-Physical Maturation
Reduced anabolic capacity -> less powerful contraction (Less Fibre Type II recruitmet). Muscular atrophy -> loss of strength due to loss of muscle mass. Less anabolic hormones -> slower recovery time meaning cannot train as often.
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Physical Changes to Flexibility due to Post-Physical Maturation
Reduced Mucle & Tendon elasticity due to collagen fibres build up. Less synovial fluid -> More wear and tear of the muscle and connective tissue as they rub together more.
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Physical Changes to CV Endurance due to Post-Physical Maturation
Reduced MHR caused by reduced contractile elasticity of heart muscle reducing the potential for as many cardiac cycles in 1 minute -> reduced Q during maximal exercise.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the Characteristics of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Stretching

Back

The muscle group is passively stretched, then contracts isometrically against a resistance while in a stretched position, and then is passively stretched again through the resulting of increased range of motion. Usually partner assisted. Up to 10s.

Card 3

Front

Describe the characteristics of Ballistic Stretching

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the Charasteristic of Dynamic Stretching

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The three Muscle Fibre Types

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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