F211 CELLS

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What is the maximum Resolution and Magnification that can be achieved by a LM (Light Microscope)
Resolution: 200nm Magnification: x1500
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What is the maximum Resolution and Magnification that can be achieved by an EM
Resolution: 0.2nm Magnification: x500,000
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What is the difference between Resolution and Magnification?
Magnification is the degree to which the size of an image is larger than the object itself, whereas Resolution is the degree to which it is possible to distinguish between 2 objects that are very close together. M=SIZE R=DETAIL
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Why should microscope samples be stained?
A lot of biological material is not coloured. Some stains bind to specific cell structures and make them visible under microscopes.
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What are the main equations for microscopes?
Image size = mag x actual size mag = image size/ actual Actual size = image / mag
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Why are lead salts used for staining in electron microscopy?
They scatter the electrons differently, electrons need something to react with/repel
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Which structure is responsible for providing mechanical strength to cells and aiding transport within them?
CYTOSKELETON
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What is another name for flagella?
Undulipodia
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What organelles may not show up in a generalised structure?
Ribosomes//Lysosomes//Nuclear Envelope//Mitochondria (small organelles)
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What do prokaryotic cells use for movement?
FLAGELLA
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What is the function of the Nuclear Envelope?
Allow communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cell
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What is the function of Smooth ER?
LIPID SYNTHESIS: involved in making lipids that the cell requires
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What is the function of the rough ER?
Transportation of proteins
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What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus
Modify and package proteins into vesicles to be secreted out of the cell by EXOCYTOSIS. Also replenishes the cell surface membrane.
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What is the function of Lysosomes?
Contain digestive enzymes that break down materials; e.g invading organisms
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Which organelles don't have membranes surrounding them?
Ribosomes and Centrioles
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Which are the main organelles involved in Protein production/secretion
Nucleus//RER//Ribosomes//Golgi Apparatus//
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State the permeability of the plasma (cell surface) membrane.
PARTIALLY PERMEABLE/ selectively permeable
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Describe the role of Phospholipids
Forms the basic structure of the membrane. Allows passage of soluble substances (water, carbon dioxide, oxygen)
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Describe the role of Cholesterol
Maintains fluidity and structure within the membrane, acts as a buffer zone.
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Describe the role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Proteins
Carry out the main process on the cell membrane. Allow communication between the membrane and the environment. Involved in the transportation of substances in and out of the cell.
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Describe the role of Glycoproteins/lipids
Allow cell to cell attachment by hydrogen bonds - polar environment. Complementary shapes to specific triggers.
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Explain the term cell signalling
Communication between cells
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What mechanism of movement is used in 'passive' transport?
DIFFUSION/ Facilitated diffusion (If a channel/carrier protein is used)
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Which form of transport goes AGAINST a concentration gradient?
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
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What substances are most commonly pumped in and out of the cell using active transport?
metal ions
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Explain what is meant by OSMOSIS
The random net movement of water molecules from an area of high water potential to an area of low water potential across a partially permeable membrane
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What does the mitotic cell cycle consist of?
INTERPHASE - MITOSIS - CYTOKINESIS (copying and checking of genetic information)
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What is mitosis significant for?
Asexual reproduction, growth, repair, replacement
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What are the 4 stages of mitosis?
PMAT - Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase
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Define the term Stem Cell.
A cell that has no differentiated, and is able to divide to form specialised types of cells.
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Explain the meaning of the term 'homologous' pair of chromosomes.
chromosome pairs of approximately the same length, centromere position, genes with the same corresponding loci.
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Define the term Differentiation.
The changes occurring inches of a multicellular organism so that each different type of cell becomes specialised to perform a specific function
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Define tissue.
A group/layer of cells of similar type that together perform a particular function
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Define organ.
A group of tissues of different type that together perform a particular function
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Define Organ system
A group of several different organs that together perform a particular function for a multicellular organism.
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What is the maximum Resolution and Magnification that can be achieved by an EM

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Resolution: 0.2nm Magnification: x500,000

Card 3

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What is the difference between Resolution and Magnification?

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Card 4

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Why should microscope samples be stained?

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What are the main equations for microscopes?

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