- F211 Cell structure and organelles
- Eukaryotic cells
- More complex and larger than prokaryotes e.g. plant and animal cells.
- Organelles and their functions:
- Plasma membrane- made up of lipids and proteins, regulates the movement of substances in/out of cells. Also has receptor molecules which allows it to respond to chemicals like hormones.
- Cell wall- made of cellulose (a carbohydrate), a rigid structure that provides strength and support to plant cells
- Nucleus- a large organelle surrounded by a nuclear envelope (double membrane) which contains many pores. The nucleus also contains chromatin and the nucleolus. The chromatin contains DNA which controls the cell's activities, and the pores allow substances (e.g RNA) to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nucleolus makes ribosomes.
- Lysosome- contains digestive enzymes, used to digest invading cells or break down worn out components of cells.
- Ribosome- where proteins are made.
- Rough ER- folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosomes.
- Smooth ER- synthesises and processes lipids.
- Vesicle- transports substances in and out of cell and between organelles. Some are formed at the Golgi body and some at the ER, whilst others are formed at the cell process.
- Golgi apparatus- processes and packages new lipids and proteins. Also makes lysosomes.
- Mitochondrion- site of aerobic respiration, produces ATP needed for energy for cell activity.
- Chloroplast- site where photosynthesis takes place, some processes take place in the grana and others in the stroma.
- Centriole- involved in the separation of chromosomes during cell division.
- Cilia- moves substances along the cell surface.
- Flagellum- move like outboard motors to propel cells forward (e.g. sperm cells)
- Prokaryotic cells
- Single celled, basic organisms. Smaller and simpler e.g. bacteria
- Eukaryotic cells
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