AS Biology Cells Exchange and Transport (OCR F211)

A full 40 page revision guide covering absolutley everything on the OCR syllabus. Will also contain the majority of material for AQA and Edexcel. Some areas go beyond the syllabus to help answer 'suggest why' questions. In word so you can make your own additions and alterations if you wish. Very thorough for full understanding of everything.

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Preview of AS Biology Cells Exchange and Transport (OCR F211)

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Biology F211
Contents
Cells .................................................................................................................................................. 1
Cell Structure ................................................................................................................................. 1
Microscopes .............................................................................................................................. 1
Structures .................................................................................................................................. 3
Division of labour ....................................................................................................................... 6
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes ...................................................................................................... 6
Animal and Plant cells ................................................................................................................ 6
Membranes ................................................................................................................................... 7
Lipids and phospholipids ............................................................................................................ 7
Fluid mosaic model .................................................................................................................... 8
Effect of temperature ................................................................................................................ 9
Cell Signalling............................................................................................................................. 9
Crossing membranes ............................................................................................................... 10
Cell division and organisation ...................................................................................................... 13
Chromosomes ......................................................................................................................... 13
Mitosis..................................................................................................................................... 14
Yeast budding .......................................................................................................................... 15
Cloning .................................................................................................................................... 16
Stem cells ................................................................................................................................ 16
Specialised cells ....................................................................................................................... 16
Tissues, organs and systems .................................................................................................... 17
Exchange and transport ................................................................................................................... 18
The need for specialised exchange surfaces ................................................................................. 18
Mammalian lungs and gas exchange ............................................................................................ 19
Alveolar adaptations ................................................................................................................ 19
Mechanism of breathing .......................................................................................................... 20
Lung tissues ............................................................................................................................. 20
Lung capacities ........................................................................................................................ 22
The need for a specialised transport system ................................................................................ 23
Size .......................................................................................................................................... 23

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37
Surface area to volume ratio .................................................................................................... 23
Activity .................................................................................................................................... 23
Types of transport system ........................................................................................................ 23
Mammalian heart and circulatory system .................................................................................... 25
Heart features ......................................................................................................................... 25
Cardiac cycle ............................................................................................................................ 26
Control of the cardiac cycle ...................................................................................................... 27
Blood vessels ........................................................................................................................... 29
Blood, tissue fluid and lymph ................................................................................................... 30
Carriage of oxygen ................................................................................................................... 32
Carriage of carbon dioxide ....................................................................................................... 32
Transport in plants ...................................................................................................................... 33
Vascular tissue ......................................................................................................................... 34
Vascular bundles in young roots ..............................................................................................…read more

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37
Cells
Cell Structure
Microscopes
Two things must be considered:
o Magnification
o Resolution
Magnification is the degree to which the size of an image is larger than the object itself.
Magnification=Size of image/size of object
Resolution is the degree to which it is possible to distinguish between two objects which are very
close together. The higher the resolution the greater the detail.…read more

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37
Preparing specimens for a light microscope
Two types:
o Staining
Needed for transparent objects or to distinguish structures
o Sectioning
Needed if difficult to cut a thin section
Staining
Specific coloured stains added which bind to chemicals in the specimen
Can be used to identify features
E.g.…read more

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37
Very expensive
Much skill and training required
Preparing samples for electron microscopes
The specimen must be made firm with glutaraldehyde
Any water within it must be replaced with ethanol (dehydrate)
Sample placed in resin
Very thin sample cut with a diamond knife or ultramicrotome (so that electrons can pass
through)
Metal or metal salts added as stains to give differentiated densities between structures for
contrast
Lead salts often used
Summary of microscopes
Feature Light microscope TEM SEM
Wavelength 400nm 1nm 1nm…read more

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37
Prokaryotic flagella are very different with no microtubules
Vesicles
A membrane bound sac
Used to carry substances within the cell without leaking into cytoplasm, e.g.…read more

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37
Allows internal transport
Receives proteins from ER and modifies them, such as by adding sugars
May change active shape
The cisternae can invaginate to form a vesicle around the modified protein
The vesicles will be transported by microtubules and may go to the cell surface membrane to be
secreted from the cell
Mitochondria
Spherical or sausage shaped
An envelope with a fluid filled space
The outer membrane is permeable to allow small molecules such as sugars in
Inner membrane folded forming…read more

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37
Form the mitotic spindle which move and separate chromosomes during cell division
400nm long
Division of labour
There is an interrelationship between organelles during protein synthesis
The instructions for a protein are in the DNA in the nucleus
The specific instructions are on its gene on a chromosome
The nucleus copies the gene into mRNA
mRNA leaves the nucleus through a nuclear pore and attaches to a ribosome attached to the
RER
The ribosome decodes the mRNA and assembles the amino…read more

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37
Plant cells are able to carry out photosynthesis
Plant cells usually have a vacuole whereas animal cells never have a large central vacuole
Plant cells tend to be larger
Plant cells never contain centrioles but animal cells do
Plant cells are autotrophs: able to produce organic compounds from inorganic compounds
Animal cells are heterotrophs: must obtain organic compounds by consumption
Eukaryotic
Feature Prokaryotic
Animal Plant
Nucleus No Yes Yes
Cell wall Not cellulose No Cellulose
Mitochondria No Yes Yes
Chloroplasts No…read more

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37
The phosphate head is hydrophilic (water loving) since its charge is attracted to the water's
dipole
The hydrocarbon tails are hydrophobic (water hating)
When the phospholipids are placed in water, the heads fix to the water while the tails repel,
creating the shape above
In a cell, the phospholipid membrane is completely surrounded by water, creating a bilayer with
the hydrophilic heads on the outside and the hydrophobic fatty acid tails on the inside
The phospholipids are not bonded together so…read more

Comments

Alice Deane

This is amazing, thanks!

Fatima Ali

This is really helpful. Thank you!

rAJAN LOTAY


i really didn't find that very helpful. To make it more better, you could add in a few questions to test wethere people are actulally learning or just memorizing

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