AS Biology Cells Exchange and Transport (OCR F211)

A full 40 page revision guide covering absolutley everything on the OCR syllabus. Will also contain the majority of material for AQA and Edexcel. Some areas go beyond the syllabus to help answer 'suggest why' questions. In word so you can make your own additions and alterations if you wish. Very thorough for full understanding of everything.

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Biology F211
Contents
Cells .................................................................................................................................................. 1
Cell Structure ................................................................................................................................. 1
Microscopes .............................................................................................................................. 1
Structures .................................................................................................................................. 3
Division of labour ....................................................................................................................... 6
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes ...................................................................................................... 6
Animal and Plant cells ................................................................................................................ 6
Membranes ................................................................................................................................... 7
Lipids and phospholipids ............................................................................................................ 7
Fluid mosaic model .................................................................................................................... 8
Effect of temperature ................................................................................................................ 9…

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37


Surface area to volume ratio .................................................................................................... 23
Activity .................................................................................................................................... 23
Types of transport system ........................................................................................................ 23
Mammalian heart and circulatory system .................................................................................... 25
Heart features ......................................................................................................................... 25
Cardiac cycle ............................................................................................................................ 26
Control of the cardiac cycle ...................................................................................................... 27
Blood vessels ........................................................................................................................... 29
Blood, tissue fluid and…

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37



Cells

Cell Structure

Microscopes
Two things must be considered:
o Magnification
o Resolution
Magnification is the degree to which the size of an image is larger than the object itself.
Magnification=Size of image/size of object
Resolution is the degree to which it is possible to distinguish…

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37


Preparing specimens for a light microscope
Two types:
o Staining
Needed for transparent objects or to distinguish structures
o Sectioning
Needed if difficult to cut a thin section

Staining
Specific coloured stains added which bind to chemicals in the specimen
Can be used to identify features…

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37


Very expensive
Much skill and training required

Preparing samples for electron microscopes
The specimen must be made firm with glutaraldehyde
Any water within it must be replaced with ethanol (dehydrate)
Sample placed in resin
Very thin sample cut with a diamond knife or ultramicrotome (so that…

Page 6

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37


Prokaryotic flagella are very different with no microtubules

Vesicles
A membrane bound sac
Used to carry substances within the cell without leaking into cytoplasm, e.g. toxins

Vacuole
Only in plant cells
Maintains stability
Filled with water and solutes which push the cytoplasm against the cell wall…

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37


Allows internal transport
Receives proteins from ER and modifies them, such as by adding sugars
May change active shape
The cisternae can invaginate to form a vesicle around the modified protein
The vesicles will be transported by microtubules and may go to the cell surface membrane…

Page 8

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37


Form the mitotic spindle which move and separate chromosomes during cell division
400nm long

Division of labour
There is an interrelationship between organelles during protein synthesis
The instructions for a protein are in the DNA in the nucleus
The specific instructions are on its gene on…

Page 9

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37


Plant cells are able to carry out photosynthesis
Plant cells usually have a vacuole whereas animal cells never have a large central vacuole
Plant cells tend to be larger
Plant cells never contain centrioles but animal cells do
Plant cells are autotrophs: able to produce organic…

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Biology F211 13/05/2012 12:37


The phosphate head is hydrophilic (water loving) since its charge is attracted to the water's
dipole
The hydrocarbon tails are hydrophobic (water hating)
When the phospholipids are placed in water, the heads fix to the water while the tails repel,
creating the shape above
In a…

Comments

Alice Deane

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This is amazing, thanks!

Fatima Ali

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This is really helpful. Thank you!

rAJAN LOTAY

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i really didn't find that very helpful. To make it more better, you could add in a few questions to test wethere people are actulally learning or just memorizing

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