Biology study guide, have i covered everything

This is my study guide for OCR as biology unit 1 module 1, I am aiming for an a/b is there anything i have missed off my study guide?

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  • Created on: 03-01-12 14:58
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AS Unit F211: Cells, Exchange and transport
Cell structure featus Endoplasmic recticumlum
Structure Function
Resolution Magnification
The endoplasmic In the RER the
Light 200nm x1,500 recticulum is a system ribosomes are made
microscope of fattened membrane- up of RNA and protein
bound sacs called and these are where
Transmission 0.1nm x500,00 cisternae. protein synthesis
electron There are two types of occurs.
microscope endoplasmic In the SER lipids and
recticulum rough and steroids are made, it is
Scanning 0.1nm x100,000 smooth , rough has also where lipids and
electron ribosomes on it outside carbohydrates are
microscope whereas smooth does metabolized.
The endoplasmic
Magnification- The number of times greater an
recticulum is
image is than an object
continuous with the
Resolution- the ability to distinguish two separate
nuclear membrane.
points as distinct from each other
is needed as a the inside of a cell is not colour and Golgi apparatus
therefore it may be difficult to distinguish between
the different parts of the cell, so it is stained this Structure Function
increases the contrast thus making it more visible.
In a light microscope the stains are colours of Stack of membrane They receive the
fluorescent dyes, these chemicals bod the the bound flattened sacs. proteins made by the
specimen allowing it to be seen RER and modify them
In electron microscopes metal particles or salts are for export.( it may add
used for staining providing a black and white image sugar molecules to
where the colour is added in later on a computer them)
programme These proteins are
1cm=10mm then packaged into
1mm= 1000 micrometer vesicles( little
1 micrometer = 1000nm membrane bound
They are then move
around the cytsol and
may move to the edge
of the cell to be
Structure Function
Spherical sacs The hydrolytic enzyme
surrounded by a single when released breaks
membrane. down old organelles,
They have a hydrolytic storage molecules or a
enzyme. whole cell when it dies.

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AS Unit F211: Cells, Exchange and transport
Structure Function
Structure Function
Have a sausage shape The outer membrane
They have a double is permeable to small
membrane. molecules, whereas Has a double The double membrane
The inner membrane is the inner membrane is membrane known as a is there to enclose and
folded to make a selectively permeable. nuclear envelope. protect the DNA and
cristae and within this The inner membrane Has holes in the regulate the
is the matrix.…read more

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AS Unit F211: Cells, Exchange and transport
The interrelationship between the organelles
involved in the production and secretion of proteins Whats in prokaryote
- mRNA copy the instruction(gene) for the hormone Always present
is made in the nucleus ·Cell wall
- mRNA leaves the nucleus through a nuclear pore ·Ribosomes
- mRNA attached to a ribosome on the ER ·Food reserves
- Ribosome reads instructions to assemble protein.…read more

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AS Unit F211: Cells, Exchange and transport
hydrophilic to pass through the bilayer so they immune systems because it has a
instead travel through the channel proteins. complimentary shape to that of the receptors
- Carrier proteins-actively ( using ATP) move on immune cells such as T-lymphocytes. They
substances through the membrane.…read more

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AS Unit F211: Cells, Exchange and transport
energy in the form of ATP. THey carry in the
opposite direction of the concentration Cells in solution of High water potential-
gradient. They move at a much faster rate than - Cell membrane is partially permeable
diffusion.…read more

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AS Unit F211: Cells, Exchange and transport
Cells in a solution of low water potential Metaphase- The chromosomes move to the
The water gradient means water goes from central region of the spindle( the equator) and
inside the cell to outside by osmosis. each becomes attached to a spindle tread by its
This causes the cell to shrink and the centromere.
membrane wrinkles up Anaphase- The sister chromatids( make up
chromosomes) are separated from each other
when the centromere splits.…read more

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AS Unit F211: Cells, Exchange and transport
produced. Their role is ti ingest invading
The significance of mitosis for growth, repair microorganisms
and asexual reproduction in plants and
animals Differentiation in reference to xylem and
Growth- multicellular organisms grow by phloem
producing new cells. Each new cell is Xylem and phloem differentiate from meristem
genetically identical to the parent cells as they cells such as cambium.
need to replace them and perform the same Xylem consists of xylem vessels with
functions. parenchyma cells and fibres.…read more

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AS Unit F211: Cells, Exchange and transport
surface area and allows it to absorb water and Cooperation between cell, tissues , organs
minerals from the soil. and organ systems
Guard Cells- in pairs on the lower epidermis. Multi-cellular organisms work effectively
Contain chloroplasts and cell wall contains because the have different cells specialised for
spiral thickening of cellulose. When water different functions.…read more


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