112DT endocrine part 2

lecture 2 of sue's - 8th Jan 2014

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Name 5 purely endocrine organs
Pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands (cortex & medulla)
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Explain the difference between circulating and local hormones
Circulating hormones: act on distant cells and circulate in the blood, Local hormones: act on cells next to them or themselves.
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and the difference between paracrine and autocrine?
Paracrine hormones act on neighbouring cells, Autocrine hormones act upon themselves
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How are steroid and thyroid hormones transported in the blood?
attach to carrier proteins synthesized by liver, which improve transport by making them water soluble.
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describe the action of a lipid soluble hormone
hormone diffuses in through the lipid bilayer of the cell, binds to receptor sites in the nucleus of the cell, turns on/off specific genes, new mRNA is formed, synthesis of new proteins, proteins alter the cell activity.
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describe the action of a water soluble hormone
cant diffuse through lipid bilayer, bind to hormone receptors on cell surface, activates g protein in membrane, g protein activates adenylate cyclase to convert ATP in to cAMP, cAMP activates protein kinases, which phosphorylate other enzymes
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In terms of hormone interactions, describe, permissive effect, synergistic effect and antagonistic effect.
permissive: 2nd hormone which strengthens effect of first, synergistic: 2 hormones act together for greater effect, antagonistic: 2 hormones with opposite effects
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what are positive and negative feedback?
positive: change produced by hormone causes more hormone to be released, negative: effect caused by hormone shuts down release of hormone
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the hypothalamus controls the release of hormones from which gland?
anterior pituitary
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Name two hormones that the posterior pituitary releases
antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin
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Explain where thyroid stimulating hormone is released, what it acts on and the effect
released by hypothalamus regulated thyrotroph cells, tsp stimulates the synthesis & secretion of T3 and T4, these stimulate metabolic rate
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and adrenocorticotrophic hormones?
hypothalamus releasing hormones stimulate corticotrophs, the corticotrophin cells then secrete ACTH, stimulates cells of the adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids
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and luteinizing hormone?
releasing hormones from hypothalamus stimulate gonadotrophs, which produce LH. In females LH stimulates secretion of oestrogen, ovulation of 2nd oocyte and secretion of progesterone, in males, stimulates interstitial cells to secrete testosterone
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name three functions of human growth hormone
1. increases cell growth and division (increases uptake of amino acids and synthesis of proteins) 2. stimulate lipolysis in adipose to fatty acids used for ATP 3. ****** use of glucose for ATP production so brain has large enough supply
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explain the effect of low blood sugar on hGH
low blood sugar stimulates release of GHRH which stimulates secretion of hGH by somatotrophs, hGH speeds up breakdown of liver glycogen into glucose which enters blood, blood glucose returns to normal
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name 5 other factors that increase hGH secretion
decrease of fatty acids in blood, increase of amino acids in blood, deep sleep, increase activity of sympathetic division o nervous system (stress), other hormones - glucagon, oestrogen's, insulin and cortisol
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Explain the difference between circulating and local hormones

Back

Circulating hormones: act on distant cells and circulate in the blood, Local hormones: act on cells next to them or themselves.

Card 3

Front

and the difference between paracrine and autocrine?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are steroid and thyroid hormones transported in the blood?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

describe the action of a lipid soluble hormone

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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